Міністерство внутрішніх справ України
Луганський державний університет
внутрішніх справ імені Е.О. Дідоренка
Навчально - методичний посібник для курсантів вищих навчальних закладів системи МВС України
ім. Е.О. Дідоренка
УДК 343.3.7 (076)
Автори: В.Ю. КАЛЮЖНА, кандидат педагогичних наук, доцент кафедри іноземних мов; М.В. КУБРАКОВА, викладач кафедри іноземних мов (Луганський державний університет імені Е.О. Дідоренка)
Рецензенти: О.О. ДУДОРОВ, професор кафедри кримінального права Луганського державного університету внутрішніх справ імені Е.О. Дідоренка, доктор юридичних наук, професор; В.А. МИСЛИВИЙ, проректор з наукової роботи Дніпропетровського державного університету внутрішніх справ, доктор юридичних наук, професор
Рекомендовано вченою радою Луганського державного університету
внутрішніх справ імені Е.О. Дідоренка (протокол № _____ від ____ _______________ 2011 року)
Калюжна В.Ю., Кубракова М.В.
Б 79 Англійська мова: [навчально-методичний посібник для для курсантів вищих навчальних закладів системи МВС України] / В.Ю. Калюжна, М.В. Кубракова; МВС України, Луган. держ. ун-т внутр. справ ім. Е.О. Дідоренка. Луганськ: РВВ ЛДУВС ім. Е.О. Дідоренка, 2011. 248 с. Бібліогр.: С. ___ - ____
У посібнику розглянуто теоретичні та практичні питання кримінальної відповідальності за вчинення злочинів проти власності.
Книга розрахована для курсантів вищих навчальних закладів системи МВС України.
УДК 343.3.7 (076)
ISBN 978-966-2905-84-7© Калюжна В.Ю., Кубракова М.В., 2011© Луганський державний університетвнутрішніх справ імені Е.О. Дідоренка, 2011
КАЛЮЖНА Вікторія Юріївна
КУБРАКОВА Марина Віталіївна
Навчально-методичний посібник для курсантів вищих навчальних закладів системи МВС України
Редактор I.Ю. Веремеєнко
Технічні редактори О.В. Буцко, М.О. Михайлюк
Компютерна верстка С.М. Топольськова, I.Ю. Веремеєнко
Художній редактор С.М. Топольськова
Підписано до друку 13.01.2011. Формат 60x84 1/16.
Ум. друк. арк. 11,5. Тираж 300 прим. Зам. №12
Редакційно-видавничий відділ Луганського державного
університету внутрішніх справ імені Е.О. Дідоренка
Друкарня РВВ ЛДУВС ім. Е.О. Дідоренка
91493, м. Луганськ, сел. Ювілейне, вул. Генерала Дідоренка, 4
Свідоцтво суб'єкта видавничої справи ДК № 2692 вiд 17.11.2006 р.
даний посібник призначений для курсантів І-ІІ курсів ВНЗ системи МВС України.
Посібник складено відповідно до вимог Програми з іноземної мови для курсантів вищих навчальних закладів МВС України.
Мета посібника розвинути навички читання, перекладу, усного мовлення, аудіювання, реферування; сформувати навички самостійної роботи з літературою за фахом, які спрямовані на вилучення необхідної інформації у межах заданої тематики, ведення бесід з використанням спеціальної юридичної термінології та відповідних грамматичних структур з тим, щоб по завершенню курсу виховати й підготувати соціально активних й інтелектуально розвинутих працівників правоохоронних органів.
Посібник розрахований на комплексне оволодіння курсантами англійської мови. Наприкінці вивчення курсу, курсанти мають знати основи граматики, словниковий запас загальновживаної лексики, вокабуляр спеціалізованих термінів та словосполучень, країнознавчу термінологію України, Великої Британіі, США (державний устрій, політичні партїї, виборчі, поліцейськи та правові системи, системи судочинства). Курсанти мають вміти читати та розуміти основний зміст іноземного тексту будь-якої складності зі словником; робити усний, прямий та зворотній переклад тексту; розуміти на слух іноземну мову і реагувати у формі монологу, діалогу та полілогу; брати участь у наукових конференціях з іноземної мови в обсязі передбаченого програмою матеріалу; писати реферати із фахових або країнознавчих питань.
Посібник складається з 4 розділів, які містять 4 модуля, що у свою чергу розподіляються на підрозділи (Units). Перший розділ присвячений повторенню і закріпленню фонетики, другий базовий курс, третій тексти для самостійного опрацювання, четвертий - граматичний довідник.
Посібник побудований на поступовому ускладненні фахового матеріалу. Правова лексика вводиться тематично і закріплюється в різноманітних вправах.
У першому розділі систематизовано фонетичний матеріал, який включає пояснення мовних явищ і правила вимови.
Усі підрозділи базового курсу ідентичні за структурою. Вони складаються з тексту, словника до нього, вправ на розуміння тексту та лексико-граматичних вправ. Засвоєння матеріалу цієї частини сприятиме виробленню твердих навичок і умінь читання та перекладу літератури за фахом та спілкування за темами, що відповідають програмі з іноземної мови для вищих навчальних закладів МВС України.
Тексти для самостійної роботи були обрані з оригінальних джерел і містять цікавий та корисний тематичний матеріал. Належне їх опрацювання сприятиме засвоєнню лексики і граматичного матеріалу.
Наприкінці посібника подається граматичний довідник та перелік слів, призначених для обовязкового запамятування. Надається також додаток - "Таблиця неправильних дієслів".
Матеріали, що подаються у посібнику, є результатом ретельної підбірки, що відповідає прагненню авторів представити та опрацювати якомога більший спектр юридичної тематики.
Англійський алфавіт (the English alphabet or the ABC) складається з 26 літер, в тому числі 20 приголосних (consonants) і 6 голосних (vowels).
Aa [ ei ] Nn [ en ]
Bb [ bi: ] Oo [ ou ]
Cc [ si: ] Pp [ pi: ]
Dd [ di: ] Qq [ kju: ]
Ee [ i: ] Rr [ a: ]
Ff [ ef ] Ss [ es ]
Gg [ dʒi: ] Tt [ ti: ]
Hh [ eitʃ ] Uu [ ju: ]
Ii [ ai ] Vv [ vi: ]
Jj [ dʒei ] Ww [ `dʌbl `ju: ]
Kk [ kei ] Xx [ eks ]
Ll [ el ] Yy [ wai ]
Mm [ em ] Zz [ zed ]
Транскрипція це система запису звуків мови. Знаки фонетичної транскрипціі пишуться в квадратних дужках [ ]. Знак двокрапка в транскрипції після голосної позначає подовження цієї голосної [:].
Ex. 1. Pronounce the following words correctly.
Deed, dark, tired, deep, term, flour, ten, first, sour, mete, turn, our, tin, fur, during, feet, cry, here, time, deer, herb, my, care, curl, pit, pine, pure, stern, five, mire, farm, bus, type, risk, window, noisy, yellow, scout, hair, food, feet, tool, icy, court, citizen, six, exam, ceremony, shy, wrest, bang, faith, lack, these, thin, theme, which, ring, what, whose, coy, look, pool, news, beer, voice, chill, quiz.
Ex. 2. Read the following complicated words.
De'velopment, in'dustrial, ex'periment, e'conomy, de'mocracy, e'xaminer, sig'nificance, re'publican, in'different, po'litical, a'cademy, ad'minister, in'vestigate, de'linquency, es'tablishment, par'ticipant, 'criminal, 'principle, 'family, a'bility, ad'minister, e'conomy, 'graduate, 'evident, 'policy, sig'nificant, tech'nology, psy'chology, phi'losophy, 'capital, 'enemy, sta'bility, for'mality, crimi'nology, natio'nality, uni'versity, re'sponsibility, regu'larity.
Ex.3. Read the words and explain the rules of reading the vowels and the vowels under stress.
Decrease, order, human, relation, close, crime, prevention, public, combat, petty, influence, try, turn, matter, concern, seek, scene, obtain, security, compare, join, new, outlook, envoy, sophomore, department, chair, shoot, gym, shirt, power, lay.
Ex. 4. Read the words and explain the rules of reading the underlined consonants and the combination of vowels and consonants.
Decrease, overcome, government, close, squads, concern, success, use, teenager, with, cadet, security, society, law-governed, legality, drug, light, ignorance, right, wonder, whose, language, where, chalk, mild, find, psychology, icy, small, cold, come, discovery.
Ex. 5. Read the nouns in the plural and put them to the write column.
Tasks, plans, facts, classes, cases, officers, chiefs, desks, boxes, stamps, crimes, days, judges, branches, jobs, laws, places, texts, buses, pianos, ladies, courts, lamps, documents, secretaries.
Topic: Forms of greeting. Biography. Grammar: Noun (singular, plural). Articles. Personal Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns. Verbs: to be, to have. Numerals. Degrees of Comparison. Possessive case.
“Attention! Comrade ……… ( rank) , study group № …… is ready for the English classes. Student(s) ……….. is (are) absent for the reason of his\her\their duty\ilness. Student…….is on duty today! At Ease\ Rest!”
MILITIA BADGES OF RANKS AND GRADES
Private Junior sergeant Sergeant
(рядовий) (молодший сержант) (сержант)
Senior sergeant Sergeant major Warrant officer
(старший сержант) (старшина) (прапорщик)
Senior Junior lieutenant Lieutenant
warrant officer (молодший лейтенант) (лейтенант)
Senior lieutenant Captain Major
(старший лейтенант) (капітан) (майор)
Lieutenant colonel Colonel Major general
(підполковник) (полковник) (генерал майор)
Lieutenant general Colonel general
COMMANDSAt my command! Слухай мою команду!Fall in! Ставайте!As you were! Відставити!At ease\rest! Вільно!Fall out! Вийти з шеренги!Dismissed! Розійдись!Attention!\Ready front! Струнко!Eyes right\ left\front! Рівняння праворуч\ліворуч\ на середину!Dress! Рівняйсь!Dress right\left! Праворуч\Ліворуч!Right\left, face! Праворуч\Ліворуч! (на місці)About face! Навколо! (на місці)Forward, march!Кроком--руш!Double time, march! Бігом -- марш!Mark time, march! На місці, кроком-руш!In place, double time, march! На місці, бігом-марш!Halt! Стій!
Ex. 1. Put the nouns into the plural.
A man, a key, a city, a baby, a book, a woman, a child, a pen, a flat, a tooth, a table, a foot, a bag, a wolf, a room, a roof, a student, a name, a hobby, a friend, a family, a cousin, a piano, a goose, a sheep, a mouse, a fish, an ox, a journalist, an army, a box.
Ex. 2. Fill in the gaps with the proper articles and pronounses where necessary.
- This is …. book. ______is new.
- That is…..university. ______ is old.
- These are….pens. _____pens are black.
- Those are…...students. ______are young.
- This is ….computer. ______computer is broken.
- These are…...journalists. _______ are good.
- This is….teacher. _____teacher is old.
- That is…..lawyer. ______ is clever.
Ex. 3. Change the underlined nouns into the personal pronouns.
- My family is not big.
- These books are on the shelf.
- I know that boy quite well.
- Open this book.
- My grandparents are pensioners.
- I met that woman in the shop.
- Her husband is an investigator.
- This young lady is a doctor.
- I saw the students in the library.
- My elder brother is a policeman.
Ex. 4. Put the sentences into the plural or single form.
Model: This is a student These are students
That is a student Those are students
- This is a policeman.
- That man is an investigator.
- Those men are lawyers.
- That lady is a secretary.
- These women are from Ukraine.
- This book is interesting.
- That subject is difficult.
- Those people are criminals.
- This policeman is brave.
- These computers are new.
Ex. 5. Put the sentences into the plural form.
- There is a telephone on the table.
- There was a detective film on TV last week.
- There is a student in the classroom.
- There will be an exam next month.
- There is a library in our city.
Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the personal pronouns.
1. Will you give … (I) this document, please. 2. My friend is going to visit … (she) on Sunday. 3. This is a new book. I would like to read … (it). 4. Will you send … (we) a fax, please. 5. They do this work for … (he). 6.Will you write … (they) a letter. 7. I am going to meet … (she) in the park.
Ex. 7. Open the brackets and choose the right form of the pronoun in the possessive case.
- His parents live in (their, theirs) own house.
- (Your, yours) book is here and where is (my, mine)?
- (Our, ours) University has correspondence courses.
- (Her, hers) relatives live in the country.
- (My, mine) flat is big and (your, yours) is small.
- (He, his) brother is at home, but where is (her, hers)?
- (They, their) computer is in (our, ours) flat.
- My friends car is better than (your, yours).
- This flat is more comfortable than (their, theirs).
- This is (her, hers) bag and that is (my, mine).
Ex. 8. Open the brackets and choose the right form of the following verbs.
- They (are, have) many new subjects at the University.
- These men (are, have) part-time students.
- My colleague (is, has) an investigator.
- Police (is, has) a hierarchy of ranks.
- My grandparents (are, have) their own house.
- Those documents (are, have) on the table.
- These crimes (are, have) too serious.
Ex. 9. Fill in the gaps with the proper verb to be.
1. I … a policeman. 2. They … lawyers. 3. It … his report. 4. You … inspectors. 5. This woman … a doctor. 6 My friend … a judge. 7. He … a criminal. 8. She … a nice lady. 9. Those students … young. 10. We … teachers. 11. These men … programmers. 12. I … a freshman.
Ex. 10. Put the right form of the verb to be.
- My future profession ____ an investigator.
- Now I ____ a freshman.
- After graduating from the University we ____ investigators, operatives, inspectors and lawyers.
- Now they____ at the faculty of economic security activities.
- It ____ possible to search the crime scene and to solve the case immediately.
- One of the main tasks of police ____ to protect people from thieves.
- I know that man, who _____ a famous scientist.
Ex. 11. Choose the right variant, read and translate the sentences.
- The jury (was, were) in the court.
- There (is, are) many students in the university.
- Extra police (was, were) needed there.
- This information (is, are) very usefull.
- There (is, are) not enough evidence.
- The Law (was, were) taught by Professor Brown.
- The foreign languages (is, are) her weak point.
- His knowledge of the subject (was, were) very good.
Ex. 12. Write down and pronounce the phone numbers in English.
175-38-72 205-11-70 214-91-67 345-99-18
895-61-09 632-55-76 563-18-39 137-71-82
Ex. 13. Write down and pronounce the dates in English.
1700, 1502, 2000, 1242, 1984, 2011, 1658, 2001, 1957, 1808, 1325, 1999, 1917, 1953, 1974, 2005, 2010, 1756,2009, 1806, 1677, 1707, 2003, 1205, 2012, 1961.
Ex. 14. Form the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives.
Short, young, comfortable, expensive, far, old, good, busy, heavy, funny, clean, rich, interesting, beautiful, weak, warm, bad, many, low, large, big, hot, sad, careful, talented, tall, small, cold, thick, thin, difficult, cheap, popular, famous, polite, changeable, dirty, serious, slow, narrow, progressive, fast, much.
Ex. 15. Put the adjective into the right degree of comparison.
- My brother is five years (young) than me.
- The sitting-room is (comfortable) room in our flat.
- Murder and rape are (serious) crimes.
- In autumn days get (short) and the nights get (long).
- Summer is (good) season for holidays.
- This book is one of (interesting) I have ever read.
- That street is (long) street in our city.
- This task is (difficult) than that one.
- Your plan is (bad) than mine.
- It is (sad) news Ive ever heard.
- It is (difficult) question Ive ever answered.
- London is (large) city in Great Britain.
Ex. 16. Open the brackets and choose the right form of the adjective or adverb.
- He knows English quite (good, well).
- Today is а (bad, badly) weather.
- The Crown Courts try (serious, seriously) cases.
- Thieves steal things (secret, secretly).
- Some students took their exams (quick, quickly).
- The White House is the (official, officially) residence of the US president.
- He is а very (polite, politely) person.
Ex. 17. Use the possessive case instead of the "of-phrases" where it is possible.
- The father of this boy works in militia.
- The name of that girl is Ann.
- The capital of Ukraine is Kiev.
- The children of that woman are pupils.
- The stories of Pushkin A. S. are known all over the world.
- The door of that room is open.
- The house of my grandparents is in the country.
Ex. 18. Put the nouns in the possessive case according to the model.
Model: My sister has two children. They go to school. -
My sisters children go to school.
- My family lives in a flat. The flat is on the second floor.
- My friends have their own house. It is in the country.
- My father has many relatives. They live all over Ukraine.
- That boy has many friends. They are students.
- This man has a hobby. He plays volley-ball every day.
- That poceman has a gun. It is very dangerous.
- Her mother has a dog. It likes to go for a walk in the park.
- My uncle has a village. It is in the country.
Ex. 19. Fill in the gaps with the following words and expressions given below.
necessary classmates to detect criminals militia officer crimes usefulfreshman lectures lawyer to master investigator
I am a future______. Now I am a _______ of Lugansk State University of Internal Affairs named after E.O.Didorenko. My_____and I attend ______, seminars and practical classes. At our classes teachers give us______and_____knowledge about laws. They teach us to solve ______and______________. I want to be an______of the Criminal Investigation Department. My friend is a sophomore of Charkiv Law Institute. He will be a ________. Our profession is difficult but interesting. We are proud of our future job. Our task is _______the profession.
Ex. 20. Translate from Ukrainian into English.
Майор, генерал-лейтенант, капітан, старшина, рядовий, генерал-полковник, прапорщик, молодший сержант, підполковник, сержант, лейтенант, полковник, старший лейтенант, старший прапорщик, генерал-майор, молодший лейтенант, старший сержант.
Ex. 21. Put the Militia badges of ranks in the right order according to the grades of subordination. Translate them into English.
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17
Ex. 22. Questions on the topic: "About Myself".
- What is your name?
- How old are you?
- Where were you born?
- Where are you from?
- What town are you from?
- Where do you live now?
- What are you? What do you do? (What is your occupation)?
- Have you any relatives in Lugansk?
- Where do your parents live? What are they?
- What university do you study at?
- What is your future profession?
- What were the reasons of choosing the future profession?
Text: Our University.Grammar: Countable and Uncountable Nouns. There is/are. Present, Past, Future Simple (Indefinite) Tenses. To be going to. Prepositions.
Our University, the Lugansk State University of Internal Affairs named after E.O. Didorenko, is one of the youngest higher educational institutions in our region. It was founded in 1993. The university has three faculties: operational detection, criminal investigation, economic security activities and also Law Institute. It also has the Correspondent and Distant Training Institute, where militia officers can raise their educational level in jurisprudence. They are called part-time students.
The academic year consists of two terms. At the end of each term the students take several examinations and tests. The course of training at the university provides the students with the knowledge and skills necessary for their professional activities.
The students take many general and special subjects, such as: philosophy, logics, the Ukrainian and foreign languages, the Theory of State and Law, Criminalistics, Criminal Law, Civil Law, Constitutional Law and others.
Some students are engaged in the scientific researches and they take part in the international conferences which are aimed on law-solving problems.
Great attention is given to the physical and military training. The students go in for athletics, boxing, wrestling, judo and many other kinds of sport.
During the study at the university, the full-time students get their first experience of work in law-enforcement bodies, such as: law courts, public prosecutors offices, different institutions and organisations.
Upon graduating from the University students get the bachelors degree, Bachelor of Law, and their first special rank lieutenant of militia.
Those who wants to continue ones education enters the postgraduate school, where it is offered the special programs on law subjects. After accomplishing this program successfully the postgraduates receive the Master of Law and have more opportunities in their future professional activities.
the University of Internal Affairs-університет внутрішніх справeducation-навчанняeducational institution-навчальний закладto detect-розшукуватиoperational detection activity-оперативно-розшукова діяльністьeconomic security activity-економічна безпекаcorrespondent/distant training-заочне/ дистанційне навчанняmilitia officer-офіцер міліції, співробітник ОВСto raise ones educational level-підвищувати навчальний рівеньjurisprudence-юриспруденціяpart-time student-студент заочного навчанняfull-time student-cтудент стаціонарного відділенняacademic year-навчальний рікterm-строк, період, семестрto provide-забеспечуватиknowledge and skills-знання та навичкиto be engaged in -займатися/ бути залученим доscientific researches-наукові дослідженняphysical and military training-фізична та військова підготовкаto get experience-отримати досвідlaw-enforcement bodies-правоохоронні органиcourt-судprosecutor-прокурорbachelors degree-ступень бакалавраpostgraduate school-магістратураto accomplish-завершувати, виконувати, досягатиMaster of Law-Магістр Права
Ex. 1. Translate the words and word-combinations given in brackets into English.
- (Університет внутрішніх справ) was founded in 1993.
- The University has three faculties: (оперативний розшук, кримінальне розслідування та економічна безпека).
- There are (курси заочного та дистанційного навчання) at the University.
- (Навчальний рік) consists of two terms.
- The students take many (екзаменів та заліків).
- Great attention is given to the (фізичній та війсковій підготовці).
- Full-time students are engaged in the (науковими дослідженнями).
- Upon graduating from the university students get the (ступень бакалавра).
- If you want to continue ones education you should enter the (магістратуру).
- The postgraduates receive the (ступень магістра).
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences.
- I study at the University of … .
- The University trains specialists in … .
- The militia officers can raise their educational level in ... .
- Those students who study at the Correspondent and Distant Training Institute are called … .
- At the end of each term the students take … .
- The students take many subjects, such as: ... .
- The international conferences are aimed on … .
- The full-time students can get the first experience of work in such law-enforcement bodies, as: … .
- After graduating from the university the students get their first special rank ... .
- At the postgraduate school it is offered … .
Ex. 3. Give the proper definition for:
prosecutor ► a) the process of teaching and learning in college, or the knowledge that you get from this
jurisdiction ► b) a higher university qualification
education ► c) the process of learning the skills you need to do a
particular job or activity
Masters degree ► d) the legal power to make decisions and judgement
training ► e) a lawyer who prosecutes people
Ex. 4. Answer the questions.
- When was the University of Internal Affairs founded?
- How many faculties are there in the University?
- What Institutes does the University contain?
- Who studies at the Correspondent and Distant Training Institute? How are they called?
- How many terms does the academic year consist of?
- What do students take at the end of each term?
- What subjects do they attend at the University?
- What are the students engaged in during their educational process?
- Where do the full-time students have their practice?
- What kind of degrees can one have upon graduating from the University?
Ex. 5. Choose th right word. What do you call:
lecture graduates degree undergraduates research lecturers postgraduates grant
- the money some students receive if they pass exams and get a place at university?
- students when they have got their first degree?
- the talks the students go in for while they are at university?
- the qualification you get while graduating from university?
- the name we give students during their educational period at university?
- teachers at university?
- students studying for a second degree?
- the study of one subject in great detail in order to get a new information?
Ex. 6. Open the brackets and put the right form of the verb.
- Where (to be) the senior officer? He (to interview) the witnesses in the next room. He usually (to collect) all the facts himself.
- Yesterday the police squads (to check) the driving licences in the highways from morning till evening. They (to look for) the serious band of criminals.
- This court usually (to hear) appeals and (to try) the most serious cases from the courts of appeals and district courts.
- I (to work) in the library while you (to have dinner) tomorrow. I often (to prepare) for exams there.
- The police (to search) the crime scene now. The detectives always (to study) every detail of the crime.
Ex. 7. Translate into English.
- Цього року я вступив до Луганського державного університету внутрішніх справ імені Е.О.Дідоренка.
- Я навчаюся на факультеті економічної безпеки, а мій брат в Інституті Права.
- Ми вивчяємо багато спеціальних та загальних дисциплін.
- Після закінчення університету ми отримаємо ступень бакалавра, але я хочу продовжити навчання та піти в магістратуру.
- Моя подруга планує працювати в державному суді.
Ex. 8. Fill in the gaps. Use much or many.
How … computers do you have at home? 2. Do you have … friends? 3. Do you like to ask people … questions? 4. How … time does it take you to get to the university? 5. Do these people have … money? 6. Not … children stay alone at home. 7. We usually dont have … classes a day. 8. She doesnt buy … coffee.
Ex. 9. Put few, a few or little, a little instead of much and many. Translate the sentences.
Model: I dont have many English book.-
I have few English book.
I have a few English books.
1. Police always asks many questions. 2. We dont have many inspectors in our department. 3. Our chief is busy. He doesnt have much time today. 4. Many people dont like to hear bad news. 5. Militia officers usually have much work to do. 6. The lawyer has many clients in his office today. 7. I dont buy many newspapers every day. 8. When this girl has much money, she always buys some new historical books.
Ex. 10. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative. Translate them.
Model: There is a computer in our English lab.
Is there a computer in our English lab?
There is no computer in our English lab.
There is a square in front of our university.
- There are some students in the library.
- There are many historical books in the reading room.
- There is a cup of coffee on the table.
- There is Law faculty in the university.
- There was the course of legal correspondence last year.
- There were some special subjects for part-time students two years ago.
Ex. 11. Use the right form of the verbs in brackets:
- Every day we (to attend) our classes at the University.
- We (to support) your decision.
- Next week he (to have) four seminars a day.
- Tomorrow they (to pass) the Criminal law.
- The President (to appoint) federal judges.
- The academic year (to consist) of two terms.
- Yesterday I (to go) to court.
- The day before yesterday I (to take) the test in English.
Ex. 12. Put the questions using the words in the brackets.
- The lecture will begin at 9 a. m. tomorrow.(when)
- Yesterday I prepared for exams.(what)
- We study at the Lugansk State University of Internal Affairs.(where)
- They will have a lot of work next week.(what)
- Our friends went to the seaside last year.(when)
- All the students missed classes the day before yesterday.(who)
- The students usually have three or four classes a day.(how many)
- The part-time students raise their educational level in jurisprudence.(what)
- He usually has dinner at home.(where)
Ex. 13. Translate the following verbs into Russian. Give 3 forms of these verbs. Make up the sentences.
To work, to live, to take, to write, to finish, to read, to give, to go, to have, to do, to make, to include, to speak, to see, to meet, to decide, to enter, to miss, to know, to understand, to tell, to pass, to situate, to form, to steal, to find, to come.
Ex. 14. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the right form. Pay attention to the usage of the Indefinite Tenses.
- He often (to go) to his work by bus.
- I (to finish) school 5 years ago.
- The students usually (to take) exams and tests at the end of each term.
- There (to be) a lot of students at the lecture tomorrow.
- We (to see) an interesting detective film yesterday.
- I (to look through) the fresh newspapers every day.
- He (to write) the project in History last week.
- Sometimes I (to meet) my friends.
- This young man (to come back) next month.
- The teacher ( to check) our tests the day before yesterday.
Ex. 15. Translate into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the usage of the construction to be going to.
- I am going to be a lawyer in five years.
- She is going to make a law report tonight.
- They are going to become good specialists.
- My sister is going to become a prosecutor.
- We are going to visit him tomorrow.
- He is going to solve this problem.
Ex. 16. Translate into English. Use the Future Simple or the construction to be going to.
1. Я збираюся готуватися до конференції сьогодні ввечері. 2. Ми не будемо розмовляти з її адвокатами завтра, ми будемо опитувати свідків. 3. Я збираюся стати хорошим спеціалістом. 4. Що ви будете робити завтра? 5. Коли ви збираєтеся працювати над доповіддю з цивільного права?
Ex. 17. Fill in the gaps with the correct Prepositions.
from on in into out of at
1. The book is … the table. Will you take the book … the table! 2. The newspaper is … the box. Will you put the newspaper … the box! Will you take the newspaper … …the box! 3. The computers are … the room. Will you put the computers … the room! Will you take the computers … … the room! 4. The fax is under the box. Will you put the fax … the box! 5. Will you take the fax … … the box! 6. The lamp is … the table. 7. The map is … the computer. 8. The lawyer is … the table. 9. Will you sit down … the table! 10. These students are … the university.
Ex. 18. Translate into English.
В університеті, на курсах, біля офісу, за столом, на землі, у театрі, у бібліотеці, на занятті, у прокуратурі, до суду, у кіно, у неділю, навесні, улітку, через два дні, по вулиці, на стадіоні, на вулиці, за годину.
Ex. 19. Work in pairs. Dramatize the dialogue answering the following questions. Pay attention to the usage of Indefinite Tenses.
- What university do you study at?
- How much time does it take you to get to the university?
- How many classes did you have the day before yesterday?
- What is your future profession?
- Do you like to go in for sport? What kind of sport do you prefer?
- How do you usually prepare for your practical classes?
- Do you like to be a caddet? Why?
- Where did you meet your friends last time?
- When will you get the degree?
- When did you go to the library last time?
Text: Daily routine.Grammar: Modal verbs. Present, Past, Future Continuous Tenses.
I am a first-year student at the Lugansk State University of Internal Affairs. I entered this university because I wanted to study law. When I graduate from this university I will be a militia officer. I understand I must work hard to become a good specialist.
Our university is also a military school that is why the daily program includes not only instructions and classes but also military training, drill and ceremonies, physical training and interior guard duty.
The daily routine starts with the command “reveille” at 6 oclock. We get up and do our morning exercises. At 7 oclock we have breakfast. Then we have spare time to prepare for classes. Our classes begin at 9 sharp and last till 13.30 (half past one). Normally we have three lessons a day. After classes we form up at the drill ground and go to the canteen to have dinner.
According to the daily program we have time for self-preparation from half past two to six oclock. At that time we can go to the reading room to prepare for seminars and practical classes. In the evening we can go in for sport. Many students prefer boxing, wrestling, combat fighting, others to play tennis, volleyball or basketball. At half past nine we form up for the roll-call and at ten oclock we go to bed with the command “taps”.
Interior guard duty is also a part of the students life as it makes them to be disciplined and executive. Students are detailed for duty according to a duty roster. The detail for the guard consists of an officer of the day with necessary officers and privates. The senior of the guard is to perform the duties of the commander of the guard. He reports to the officer of the day that his relief is ready to be posted. A tour of duty lasts 24 hours. It consists of a system of patrols and fixed posts. Sentinels on post and guards on duty are posted armed and equipped according to there particular duty. The officer of the day inspects the guard and sentinels at least once between midnight and the daytime and he visits the guardhouse. At the end of the tour a new guard relieves the old one.
first-year student-студент першокурсникmilitia officer-офіцер міліціїmilitary school-військова школаinstructions and classes-навчання (інструктаж) та практичні заняттяdrill and ceremonies-стройове навчання (муштра) та урочистий маршinterior guard duty-внутрішня караульна службаreveille -підйомto have spare time-мати вільний часto form up-шукуватисяdrill ground-навчальний плацself-preparation-самопідготовкаroll-call-перекликtaps-відбійduty roster-розклад нарядів (вартувань)detail for the guard-розподіл нарядівofficer of the day -черговий офіцерsenior of the guard-старший вартовийcommander of the guard-начальник вартиrelief-зміна (караулу)patrol-патрулюванняsentinel-вартовийto be armed and equipped-бути озброєнимguardhouse-вартове приміщення
Ex. 1. Translate into English.
To enter the university, to study law, to graduate from the university, to become a good specialist, to include, to prepare for seminars and practical classes, to be disciplined and executive, officers and privates, to perform the duty, to inspect the guard.
Ex. 2. Complete the sentences.
- The daily program at the university includes: … .
- The daily routine starts with the command … .
- After classes the students … and go to the canteen to have dinner.
- At 9.30 the students form up for the … .
- The detail for the guard consists of: … .
- A tour of duty consists of a system of … .
- … is to perform the duties of the commander of the guard.
- … inspects the guard and sentinels at least once between midnight and the daytime and he visits the … .
- The students go to bed with the command … .
Ex. 3. Give the proper definition for:
drill ► a) to protect someone or something from
being attacked or stolen
to guard ► b) a plan which shows who must do which
jobs and when they must do them
lawyer ► c) to include the things that are needed
for a particular purpose
duty roster ► d) someone whose job is to understand the law
and deal with legal situations
to be equipped ► e) when soldiers do training for marching
Ex. 4. Answer the questions:
- What course do you study at? Where?
- What will be your future profession?
- What does the daily program include?
- At what time do you get up? Why?
- How many classes do you usually have? How much time do they last?
- What do the students do after the lessons?
- How do you spend your time during the self-preparation?
- When do you go to bed?
- Why is the interior guard duty so important for future officers?
- How are the students detailed for the guard? What are their duties?
- What are the powers of the senior of the guard and the officer of the day?
- When does a new guard relieve the old one?
Ex. 5. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Underline the modal verbs.
- Only the detective could find the criminals in order to prove the boys innocence.
- The policeman ordered that everybody must leave the house.
- I think I ought to inform the police about this accident.
- You neednt trouble yourself.
- May I use your telephone?
- I had to come here incognito to avoid publicity.
- We are to have a lecture and two seminars tomorrow.
- How can I get to the city center?
- You will have to come here again.
- An investigator must be very attentive.
Ex. 6. Put the right modal verbs.
must need mayhave to to be able to shouldcan could ought to
1. My aunt is in trouble, thats why I … to help her. 2. I … speak two foreign languages. 3. All students … attend classes. 4. … I do this work tomorrow? 5. The tourists will …to reach the village before the dark if they are in a hurry. 6. Which of your friends … play chess? 7. I … meet her at the station, but I had no opportunity. 8. This girl … know the truth. She saw what has happened. 9. I have a toothache, I … go to the doctor. 10. You … brush your teeth every morning. 11. … I interrupt you in order to tell the latest news? 12. … I help you? 13. Its too late. We … to go home. 14. You … not to close the door. 15. … I ask you a question? 16. … you give me your book, please?
Ex. 7. Translate into English.
- Офіцерам міліції слід допомагати кожному потерпілому.
- Як я можу дістатися до центру міста?
- Курсанти університету повинні носити форму.
- Я повинна буду відвідати історичний музей, для того щоб зробити доповідь.
- Можна мені увійти?
- Сідайте на цей автобус, і ви зможете доїхати до площі.
- У нас багато часу в запасі, і нам нема чого поспішати.
- Тобі нема потреби робити це зараз.
Ex. 8. Translate the sentences into Russian. Underline the Continuous Tenses.
- Listen! The telephone is ringing.
- The policeman was checking the documents when somebody knocked at the door.
- At this time tomorrow they will be leaving for Kiev.
- The students are making projects in the library now.
- The boys broke the window when they were playing football.
- The police will be searching for the criminals.
- Do you realise what you are saying?
- I am translating the article now.
- Look, the suspect is entering the shop.
- The officers will be questioning the witnesses at 8 p.m. tomorrow.
Ex. 9. Open the brackets. Use Present Continuous or Present Simple.
- They (to want) to publish this book in summer.
- I (to attend) English classes every week.
- What she (to talk) about right now?
- You (to want) to see the prosecutor?
- I (to have) no time, I (to have) dinner.
- He (to understand) that he (to speak) loudly, but he always (to forget) about it.
- I (not to work) in my office now.
- I (to sit) in the waiting room at the doctors now.
- She (to think) he (to drive) dangerously.
- The moon (to go) round the earth.
Ex. 10. Open the brackets. Use Past Continuous (I was doing) or Past Simple (I did).
- Mary_____ (fell) off the ladder while she ______(paint) the ceiling.
- I _____(see) Carol at the party. She _____(wear) a very beautiful dress.
- Sam_____(make) a picture of me while I _____(not/look).
- What ____(you/do) at this time the day before yesterday.
- ______(you/watch) television when I phoned you.
- Last night I ____(read) the book when suddenly I ____(hear) a scream.
- We____(not/go) out because it_____(rain).
- She ____(not/drive) fast when the accident_____(happen).
- Tom _____(wait) for me when I ____(come) to the station.
- He ____(translate) when somebody_____(knock) at the door.
Ex. 11. Open the brackets. Use Future Continuous or Future Simple.
- You (to play) tennis tomorrow?
- When I return home tomorrow, my family (to have) supper.
- What you (to do) at 9 oclock the day after tomorrow?
- When you (to visit) your friends next time?
- Tomorrow I (to begin) doing my hometask as soon as I come from the university. I (to do) it from 3 till 5.
- Dont come to me the day after tomorrow. I (to write) an article the whole day.
- This time next week I (to sit) in the office.
- The investigator (to question) the suspects in an hour.
- My parents (to meet) me tomorrow.
- When I graduate from the university, I (to get) the bachelors degree.
Ex. 12. Translate into English.
1. Серед інших факультетів тут буде також факультет економічної безпеки. 2. Що ти робиш? Я виконую домашнє завдання. 3. Я розмовляв з адвокатом, коли задзвонив телефон. 4. Через хвилину ми будемо проходити поряд з прокуратурою. 5. Вони складали іспит з кримінального права протягом двох годин.
Ex. 13. Questions on the topic: "My Working Day".
- Where do you study?
- What course do you study at?
- What is your future profession?
4.How do you usually start your working day?
- How much time does it take you to get to the university?
- How many classes do you usually have during a day?
- What do you do after classes?
- Are you engaged in the social life of university? How?
- When and where do you prepare your hometask?
- How do you spend your free time in the evening?
- At what time do you go to bed?
Text: State structure of Ukraine.Grammar: Present, Past Perfect Tenses. The Passive Voice (simple tenses).
State Structure of Ukraine
The Constitution establishes the countrys political system. Ukraine is a sovereign and independent, democratic, social, legal state. It is a unitary, not a federal state with single citizenship. Ukraine is a republic. The people are the only source of power which is exercised through the bodies of state power and local self-government.
The Constitution outlines the structure of the national government and specifies its powers and duties. Under the Constitution the powers of the government are divided into three branches the legislative, the executive and the judicial.
The only body of the legislative power in Ukraine is parliament the Supreme Rada (the Verkhovna Rada). It consists of 450 peoples deputies, who are elected for a term of four years on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The Supreme Radas main function is making laws. The Supreme Rada adopts the State Budget for the period from January 1 to December 31 and controls the execution of it.
The President of Ukraine is the head of the state and speaks on behalf of it. He is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years with no more than two full terms. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of Ukraine and is responsible for relations between Ukraine and other powers.
The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers. It is responsible to the President and is accountable to the Supreme Rada. The Cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister who is appointed by the President and approved by the Supreme Rada. The Cabinet carries out domestic and foreign policy of the state, develops and fulfills national programs on the economic, scientific and technological, social and cultural development of Ukraine.
Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by courts. It is administered by the Constitutional Court and by courts of general jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction.
sovereign-сувереннийindependent-незалежнийindependence-незалежністьlegal-правовий, юридичнийcitizen-громадянинcitizenship-громадянствоpowers and duties-повноваження та обовязкиsource of power -джерело владиgovernment-урядlegislative-законодавчийexecutive-виконавчийjudicial-судовийto elect (election)-обирати (вибори)to vote-голосувати (обирати)suffrage-виборче правоsecret ballot-таємне голосуванняto make laws-створювати закониCommander-in-Chief -головнокомандувачthe State Budget-державний бюджетto speak on behalf of-виступати від іменіto be responsible for (... to )-бути відповідним за щось (перед кимось)to carry out-виконувати, здійснюватиdomestic (home) policy-внутрішня політикаforeign policy-зовнішна політикаto develop-розвивати, розроблятиjustice-правосуддя, справедливістьjurisdiction-судочинство, юрисдикціяConstitutional court-Конституційний судthe Supreme court-Верховний судcourt of general jurisdiction-суд загальної юрисдикції
Ex. 1. Read and translate the following words into Ukrainian.
Constitution, political, system, democratic, sovereign, social, unitary, federal, republic, structure, national, parliament, secret, function, committee, budget, period, control, president, commander, cabinet, minister, national, program, economic, technological, cultural.
Ex. 2. Form the nouns from the following verbs.
To develop, to govern, to establish, to appoint, to perform, to elect, to adopt, to recognise, to execute, to constitute, to relate.
Ex. 3. Give the corresponding adjectives.
Policy, independence, importance, economy, democracy, society, nation, science, technology, culture, execution, legislation, constitution, federation.
Ex. 4. Translate the words given in brackets.
- Ukraine is democratic, (суверенне), social, unitary, (незалежне), (правове), not a federal state (з єдиним громадянством).
- The Supreme Rada is (єдиний орган законодавчої влади) in Ukraine.
- The main function of the the Supreme Rada is (створення законів).
- (Вибори президента) are held every five years by (виборцями).
- (Вибори депутатів) are held every four years on the basis of direct, (рівного) and universal (виборчого права).
- The peoples deputies are elected by (таємним голосуванням).
- The Supreme Rada adopts (державний бюджет).
- The President (несе відповідальність за) relations with other countries.
- The Cabinet carries out (внутрішню та зовнішню політику) of the state.
- (Правосуддя в Україні) is exercised entirely by (судами загальної юрисдикції).
Ex. 5. Complete the sentences.
- Ukraine is.................................................................................................
- The Constitution establishes.................................................
- The powers of the state government are divided into three branches..........................................................................
- The legislative body in Ukraine is…....................................
- Peoples deputies are elected for a term of................................................................................................
- The main function of the Supreme Rada is.................................................................................................
- The President is elected by...................................................
- The President is.......................................................................
- The highest body of the executive power is.................................................................................................
- The Cabinet of Ministers carries out....................................
- Justice in Ukraine is administrated by................................
- The highest juridical body is................................................
Ex. 6. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
- Ukraine is a sovereign, independent, democratic, social, legal, not a federal state.
- The powers of the government are divided into the legislative and the judicial branches.
- The President is the head of the state and the head of the executive branch of the government.
- The only body of the legislative power is the Supreme Court.
- The main function of the Supreme Rada in Ukraine is making laws.
- The Cabinet of Ministers is responsible to the President.
- The highest body of the executive power is the Cabinet of Ministers.
- The Cabinet of Ministers is responsible for the relations between Ukraine and other countries.
- The Parliament carries out domestic and foreign policy.
- The Supreme Court is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction.
Ex. 7. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the use of the Perfect Tenses.
- Some states in the USA have established state bureaus of identification for criminal identification and investigation.
- When the states attorney has finished his direct examination of the witness, the defendants attorney may then cross-examine the witness upon any matter.
- The monarchy has been in existence for over а thousand years.
- By the end of January the British Parliament had adopted the State Budget of the country.
- The investigator has already gathered sufficient evidence and listened testimony of that case.
- Each state in the USA has established а system of courts, including state supreme court.
- By 1959 fifty states had entered the federation of the USA.
Ex. 8. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative. Translate them.
Model: I have already told you the whole story!
Have you told me the whole story yet?
I have not told you the whole story yet.
- I have already read all titles.
- I have just questioned three witnesses and have got some useful information.
- By the end of last week they had resolved the dispute at last.
- He has just disarmed him!
- They had passed three property laws before going on holiday.
- The police have found stolen things.
- After the policeman had explained me everything I realized his fault.
Ex. 9. Choose the correct form (Present Perfect or Past Indefinite).
- The students (to finish) the work already.
- The students (to finish) the work the day before yesterday.
- I (to see) my school friend since last year.
- I (to see) my school friend last year.
- The manager just (to go) away.
- The manager (to go) away five minutes ago.
Ex. 10. Open the brackets and choose the right adverbs.
- Police have found the band of gangsters (already, yesterday).
- The Queen will summon the Parliament (next week, by the end of the week).
- (Recently, last year) the Cabinet of Ministers has discussed the national programmes on economic, scientific and social development of Ukraine.
- (Just, every day) police officers patrol the highways.
- The Parliament adopted some new Bills (two days ago, just).
Ex. 11. Open the brackets and put the right forms of the verbs.
- I often (to see) him last year. But I (not to see) him this year yet.
- My friend (to prepare) for exam in History of state and law at this moment. He already (to pass) examination in criminalistics. We usually (to take) three or four exams every term.
- The students (to like) to read detective stories. I just (to take) an interesting book in the library. I (to read) it from 6 till 10 p. m. tomorrow.
- I (to go) to Kiev next week. I never (to be) there.
- The Prime Minister already (to appoint) new members of the Cabinet. Next week the Cabinet of Ministers (to develop) the national programs from 9 till 12 oclock. The Cabinet of Ministers (to consider) matters on national, scientific and economic development of the nation every year.
Ex. 12. Make the following interrogative and negative. Translate them.
- The name Ukraine is connected with the word “Ukraine” which originally meant “borderland”.
- Ukraines independence was declared in 1991.
- Ukraine is situated in south-eastern part of Central Europe.
- Admission to the university will be given to people who have successfully completed secondary education.
- Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by courts.
Ex. 13. Change the following sentences into Passive.
- The President heads the state.
- The Supreme Radas Committees performed law drafting work.
- The President will appoint the Cabinet of Ministers next week.
- The Supreme Rada adopts the State Budget.
- The deputies elect the leader of the the Supreme Rada.
- They did not adopt the resolution yesterday.
- The teacher will examine the students next month.
Ex. 14. Transform from Passive into Active.
- The new powers of the Government will be formed by the legislative, the executive and the judicial branches.
- Home and foreign policy of Ukraine is carried out by the Cabinet of Ministers.
- Justice in Ukraine is exercised entirely by courts.
- Justice in Ukraine is administrated by courts of general jurisdiction.
- National programs were developed by the Cabinet of Ministers.
- The country is governed by the President on behalf of its people.
Ex. 15. Answer the questions.
- What kind of state is Ukraine? What is its political statues?
- What branches are the powers of the national government divided into?
- What is the legislative body of Ukraine?
- How many peoples deputies are elected into the Supreme Rada according to the Constitution?
- What term are peoples deputies elected for? How are they elected?
- What is the main function of the Supreme Rada?
- How is the President elected?
- What are the main powers and duties of the President?
- What is the highest body of the executive power?
- Who is the Cabinet of Ministers headed by?
- Who is the Prime Minister appointed by?
- What policy does the Cabinet of Ministers carry out?
- What is justice in Ukraine administrated by?
- What is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction?
Ex. 16. Speak on the following topics.
- Political system of Ukraine.
- The Supreme Rada.
- The President of Ukraine.
- The Cabinet of Ministers.
Text: Political system of Great Britain.Grammar: Future Perfect Tense. Passive Voice (continuous tenses).
POLITICAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN
Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. The Queen is at the head of the nation. She is the head of the system of justice and of the armed forces and temporal head of the Church of England. The Queen does not take part in politics, but the country is governed in her name. She summons the Parliament. Laws are made by Parliament and her Royal Assent is needed before any Bill becomes law as an Act of Parliament.
Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords (the Upper House) is presided over by the Lord Chancellor and is formed partly on a hereditary basis. It includes the English peers (lords), a certain number of elected Irish and Scottish peers and a number of the Bishops of the Church of England. The House of Commons (the Lower House) is elective. Each member of the House of Commons is elected from one of 635 areas, called constituencies. Elections are held every five years by secret ballot. The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker.
Members of the House of Commons belong to different political parties. The main parliamentary parties are: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party, the Liberal Party. The Government is formed by the party that gains a majority in the House of Commons. The leader of that party becomes Prime Minister, the head of the Government. He forms his Cabinet from members of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The Cabinet is collectively responsible for all Government decisions. It is answerable to Parliament. The second largest party normally becomes the official Opposition, with its own leader and shadow cabinet.
Local government is carried out by elected councils, representing local areas. They deal with housing, education, social services, police, fire brigades and many other services.
monarchy-монархіяQueen-королеваto summon-созивати, викликатиtemporal-світський, тимчасовийRoyal Assent-королевська санкція, згодаHouse of Commons-палата громадHouse of Lords-палата лордівto preside over-головувати надhereditary basis-спадкова основаLord Chancellor-лорд канцлерBishop of the Church of England-єпископ англиканської церквиpeer-перconstituenсy-виборча дільницяto hold (held)-проводити, держати, триматиto gain a majority-набирати більшість (голосів)shadow cabinet-тіневий кабінетto deal with (dealt)-мати справу з (чимось, кимось)elected council-виборча рада
Ex. 1. Read the words and translate them into Russian.
Parliamentary monarchy, nation, system of justice, armed forces, politics, bill, lord, speaker, leader, Prime Minister, Cabinet of Ministers, official opposition, party, police, department.
Ex. 2. Form the nouns from the verbs and translate them into Russian.
To govern, to form, to decide, to constitute, to preside, to elect, to educate, to commit.
Ex. 3. Give the corresponding adjectives.
Constitution, parliament, nation, policy, election, difference, independence, society, democracy.
Ex. 4. Translate the words given in the brackets into English.
- The Queen (не бере участі) in politics of the country.
- The Queen (скликає) Parliament.
- Lord Chancellor (очолює) the House of Lords.
- The House of Commons is (виборна) and more powerful.
- The Government is formed by the party that (набирає більшість голосів) in the House of Commons.
Ex. 5. Add the necessary words.
- The Queen is at the … of the nation.
- The Queen is the … head of Church of England.
- She is the head of the system of … and of the armed.
- Laws are made by …
- The House of Lords is formed on a … basis.
- The House of Commons is …
- Elections are held by …
- The party that ... a majority in the House of ... forms the Government.
- The second largest party becomes …
Ex. 6. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
- The Queen is like a living symbol for Englishmen.
- The Queen makes laws and her Royal Assent is needed before any Bill becomes law as an Act of Parliament.
- The House of Lords is formed partly on a hereditary basis.
- The peoples achievements give opportunity to earn the life membership.
- The members of the House of Commons are elected every five years by secret ballot.
- Prime Minister is the head of the Government.
- Prime Minister is responsible for all government decisions.
Ex. 7. Make the following interrogative and negative. Translate them.
- Tom will have studied Criminal Law by the end of the first year.
- By the end of this week the investigator will have collected all necessary proofs of his guilt.
- They will have gone through the Customs by 7 p.m.
- Ill have found it out by the time you need it.
- By the time you come home Ill have finished preparing the report on enforcement of laws in Canada.
Ex. 8. Choose the correct form (Future Indefinite or Future Perfect).
- He (to receive) the judicial decision by tomorrow.
- He (to receive) the judicial decision tomorrow.
- They (to inform) him of the penalty by noon.
- They (to inform) him of the penalty at 12.
- You (to meet) the accused in court tomorrow.
- You (to meet) the accused in court by the beginning of the hearing.
- You (to take) your examination in Criminal Procedure next week.
- By the 20th of January you (to pass) your examination in Criminal Procedure, I hope.
Ex. 9. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. Pay attention to the voice of the verb.
- The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on two large islands called the British Isles and is washed by the Atlantic ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea.
- The judge of the High Court is being appointed at the moment.
- The budget was being considered the whole day yesterday.
- Britain is governed by elected representatives of the people.
- A new building of the Parliament is being built now.
Ex. 10. Change the following sentences into Passive.
- The committee is discussing the date of the presidential election.
- The investigator was examining clothes when the expert arrived.
- They will be working with this text when you return.
- At seven oclock, when you phoned, I was reading the newspaper.
- They are spending a lot of money on weapons nowadays.
- I was writing a law report all day yesterday.
- The police are making inquiries now.
Ex. 11. Answer the following questions.
- What is the political statues of Great Britain?
- Who is the head of the nation?
- What is the role of the Queen in the country?
- Who are the laws made by?
- What does the Parliament consist of?
- Who is the head of the House of Lords? Who belongs to the House of Lords?
- Who is the House of Commons presided over?
- How often are elections held?
- What are the main parties of Great Britain?
- What is the Government formed by?
Ex. 12. Speak on the following topics.
- The Queen and her role in the country.
- The House of Lords.
- The House of Commons.
- The structure of the Government.
Topic: Political system of the USA.Grammar: The Passive Voice (perfect tenses).
OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The United States of America is a federative republic. The independence of the USA was declared in 1776, and thirteen states entered the federation. From 1959 the federation comprises 50 states. The federal district of Columbia with the capital of the country, Washington, is an independent territorial unit.
The United States Constitution, written in 1787, established a government of three branches legislative, executive and judicial. The president carries out many duties as the head of the executive branch of the government. He is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the USA. The president and vice-president are elected for a term of four years. No person can be elected to the office of the president more than twice. The White House is the presidents official residence.
The Congress is the legislative body of the United States. It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Members of the House of Representatives, 435 in number, are chosen every second year. Senators are elected for a term of six years, two senators from each state. One-third of the Senate is renewed every two years.
The Constitution guarantees rights, freedom and justice to all. It consists of a Preamble, seven articles and twenty six amendments. The first ten of them are called the Bill of Rights. Because of the Bill of Rights, police cannot stop and search or arrest a person without good reason, nor can they search anyones home without clear cause and the permission of a court.
The states have legislative and executive bodies of their own. Their structure, function and competence are determined by the constitution of each state. But state laws must not conflict with the Constitution of the country.
There are two main parties in the United States: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. They have no permanent membership, nor their programs differ greatly. Membership is determined by election vote.
federal-федеральнийfederative-федеративнийfederation-федераціяunit-одиниця, відділ, розділdistrict-район, дільниця,округаoffice-служба, посадаSenate-СенатHouse of Representatives-палата представниківto renew-поновлювати, робити новимto guarantee-гарантуватиPreamble-преамбула, вступ, передмоваamendment-поправка (до закону), виправленняto search-розшукувати, шукатиcause-причинаreason-причина, привід, підставаto permit-дозволяти; допускатиpermission-дозвілcourt-судto determine-визначати, встановлюватиpermanent-постійний, незмінний
Ex. 1. Read and translate the words into Ukrainian.
Republic, declaration, federation, territory, vice-president, army, person, residence, congress, senator, preamble, bill, police, arrest, structure, function, competence, conflict.
Ex. 2. Translate into Ukrainian. Define the parts of the speech.
Independence, federative, territorial, legislation, judicial, government, election, permission, law, membership, federation, legislative, member, police, court, independent.
Ex. 3. Translate the word-combinations into Ukrainian.
The independence of the USA, the capital of the country, a government of three branches, the legislative branch of the government, the duties of the president, the elections of the vice-president, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the USA, the office of president, the official residence of the president, the House of Representatives, the executive body of the USA, a term of four years, the Constitution of the USA, arrest of a person, permission of a court.
Ex. 4. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the right forms. Define the voice of the verbs.
- The independence of the USA (to declare) in 1776.
- The federation (to include) 50 states.
- The Constitution of the USA (to write) in 1787.
- The President (to carry out) many duties as head of the executive branch of the government.
- The senators (to elect) for a term of six years.
- The Constitution (to guarantee) the rights, freedom and justice to all.
- The Congress (to consist ) of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Ex. 5. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the usage of the Passive Voice.
- The work of the government is carried out through the various government departments.
- The government decisions are being discussed in the press and broadcasting systems.
- The government will have been formed by the beginning of Parliament vocations.
- The English criminal law has never been reduced to a single code.
- The State Budget had been adopted by the end of last year.
- The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker.
- You have the right to call a lawyer and to have one present while you are being questioned.
- The man was convicted for what he had not done.
- That house was being built when we came here.
Ex. 6. Make the following interrogative and negative. Translate them.
- The Criminal Law has been codified since the Criminal Act of New Zealand 1893.
- The Parliament had passed the important law before going on holiday.
- The investigation will have been finished successfully by the end of the week.
- The criminal has been caught at last.
- The Common Law offences had been codified by 1986.
Ex. 7. Change the following sentences into Passive.
- Modern scientists have made many wonderful discoveries.
- They will have published this document by the end of the year.
- He has done very little work recently.
- By Saturday he had found all the necessary material.
- She had finished her work by this time yesterday.
- The students had translated the text before the bell rang.
- The Government will have taken a number of bills by the end of the year.
Ex. 8. Answer the following questions.
- What kind of state is the USA? What is the capital of the USA?
- What are the branches of the US government?
- Who is the head of the country? What are his duties?
- What term is he elected for?
- What is the legislative body of the USA? What is its structure?
- What does the Constitution of the USA guarantee? What is the structure of the Constitution?
- What are the main parties of the USA?
Ex. 9. Speak on the following topics.
- Political system of the USA.
- The president and his functions.
- The Congress and its structure.
Topic: Militia of Ukraine.Grammar: Imperative Mood. Subjunctive Mood.
MILITIA OF UKRAINE
The Law of Ukraine “On Militia” was approved on the 20th of December, 1990. In accordance with the Ukrainian legislation the militia is the state armed agency of the executive power.
Militia is aimed to protect a person, his life, dignity, honour, property, rights and freedoms, interests and environment.
The most important among the forms and methods of the Ukrainian militia are:
- securing human right;
- preventing violent crimes;
- combating organized crime and banditry;
- counteracting criminal clements;
- guarding property against criminal and administrative encroachments;
- protecting business activities and creating favorable conditions to attract foreign investments into the state economy.
Dealers of the criminal world consider the territory of Ukraine to be a profitable ground for distribution of drugs and firearms, criminal money laundering. In order to counteract these phenomena Ukraine has integrated into the Interpol structures, joined a number of European Conventions on criminal court proceedings. All the above contributes to prestige of the State and gives the Ukrainian militia other opportunities to combat international criminal gangs.
The militia of Ukraine structurally is a part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. Militia is composed of the following subdivisions:
- Criminal Militia;
- Militia of Public Safety;
- Transport Militia;
- State Traffic Inspection;
- State Guard Service;
- Specialized Militia Service.
The characteristic feature of militia in Ukraine is the centralized structural organization of its departments which corresponds to three levels of management in the Internal Affairs agencies, namely:
- general state level the corresponding departments in the MIA;
- regional level Militia Departments of the Crimean Autonomous Republic within the MIA of Ukraine, Regional Departments of Internal Affairs and in such cities as Kyiv and Sevastopol; and on transport;
- local level militia subdivisions in districts, city departments of Internal Affairs and transport militia units.
The staff of militia is composed of personnel serving in militia who has special militia ranks. Recruitment to militia is done on a voluntary basis. It enrolls persons over 18 years of age who by their qualities, education and state of health are able to perform the duties vested in them.
in accordance with-відповідно доarmed agency-орган збройних силto be aimed-бути націленим наdignity and honour-гідність та честьenvironment-навколишнє середовищеto combat banditry-боротися з бандитизмомto counteract-протидіятиencroachments-вторгнення, загарбанняfavorable conditions-сприятливі умовиprofitable ground-прибуткова підставаdistribution of drugs/ firearmes-розповсюдження наркотиків/ вогнепальної зброїto launder money-відмивати грощіphenomenon (pl.phenomena)-рідкісне явище, феноменcourt proceeding-судова процедураcriminal gang-кримінальне угрупування (банда)staff-кадри, персонал, штабmilitia rank-міліцейське званняrecruitment-набір новобранцівon a voluntary basis-на громадських засадахto enroll-зараховувати, реєструватиquality-якість, особливість
Ex. 1. Translate the following words into Ukrainian:
Independent state, legislative, safety, staff, legal, executive, security, prevention, crime, gang, distribution, firearms, proceeding, opportunity, phenomenon, criminal world, division, dealer, voluntary basis, recruitment.
Ex. 2. Choose the synonyms from the box.
country offence forcible drug washing band area fight
Ex. 3. Complete the sentences:
- The Militia of Ukraine …………………………………………
- Recruitment to Militia …………………………………………
- The activity of Militia …………………………………………
4. Militia structurally………………………………………………
5. One of the main educational establishments …………………
a) is done on a voluntary basis
b) is a part of the MIA of Ukraine
c) is the National Academy of Internal Affairs of Ukraine
d) is regulated by legislative and departmental documents
e) is the state armed agency of the executive power
Ex 4. Find the English equivalents in the text:
- кримінальна міліція
- міліція громадської безпеки
- гілки кримінального світу
- з метою протистояння
- протидія злочинним елементам
- забезпечення прав людини
- боротьба з організованою злочинністю
- кримінальне судочинство
- захист особи, її життя, честі та гідності
- відповідно до українського законодавства
Ex 5. Mark the meaning in which the following words are used in the text. Choose the right letter:
a) state armed agency of the executive power
Militia b) force of the civilians trained as soldiers of regular
a) person who offends against the law
Criminal b) person who commits a crime
a) special place for pedestrians, riders, vehicles
Traffic b) movement of people and vehicles along the road
a) actions performed to help or benefit people
Service b) department of branch of public work, government,
Ex. 6. Translate the words in the box and complete the sentences:
виконавча влада, карний розшук, злочинні посягання, обовязки міліції,захищати власність
- The history of Militia shows that it was designed ____________________________________________________
- The Militia protects the people from different____________________________________________
- _______________________ are securing human rights, prevention of violent crimes, protection of business activity, etc.
- ________________________________ is the subdivision of Criminal Militia.
- The Militia is the state armed agency of the ____________________________________________________
Ex. 7. Answer the questions to the text “Militia of Ukraine”:
- Is the Militia of Ukraine structurally a part of the MIA?
- What is the staff of militia composed of?
- At what age is the recruitment to militia done?
- What is militia in accordance with the Ukrainian legislation?
- What are the main tasks of militia?
- In what subdivision of militia do you want to work?
- Is Ukraine a member of Interpol?
- The activity of militia is regulated by legislative and departmental documents, isnt it?
Ex. 8. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the usage of Imperative:
- Give your son this book. Let him read it.
- Ask captain Black this difficult question. Let him answer it.
- Meet lieutenant at the station, please. Let him come here together with his friend.
- Dont go to the sea-side now. Let us remain at home till five.
- Perform your duties sergeant White.
- Help the victim. Investigate the crime.
Ex. 9. Fill in the gaps with the proper verbs in Imperative:
Model: … the book! Will you … the book, please!
Open the book! Will you open the book, please!
to read, to send, to take, to find, to meet, to close, to write, to give
1. ….the text! Will you…the text, please! 2. … a fax! Will you … a fax, please! 4. …a diskette! Will you … a diskette, please! 5. …the manager! Would you … the manager, please! 6. … the book! Would you … the book, please! 7. … an exercise! Will you … this exercise, please! 8. Mary… this note-book! Will you … Mary this note-book, please!
Ex. 10. Use the Subjunctive Mood as in the example:
Model: If the sun shining, I would lie in the sun.
Were the sun shining, I would lie in the sun.
1. If I had anything to tell you, I would tell you. 2. If I were not sure of positive results, I wouldnt start this business. 3. If this article were simple, I wouldnt have so many questions. 4. If this man had any experience in psychology, he would help us. 5. If he werent such an egoist, he would understand people better. 6. If he werent so hungry, he wouldnt be nervous.
Ex. 11. Fill in the gaps with the proper verbs. Pay attention to the usage of Subjunstive Mood. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
1. If I … any experience in this field, I … you advice (to have, to give). 2. If I … a fever, I … a medicine (to have, to take). 3. If he … hungry, he … to a restaurant (to be, to go). 4. If I … my colleaues phone number, I … him on his birthday (to remember, to congratulate). 5. If this man … not so nervous, he … a success (to be, to have). 6. If this suit … not dirty, he … it on (to be, to put). 7. If I … angry with you, I … you like this ( to be, not + to treat). 8. If she … so often, she … by her colleaugues (not + lie, to trust) 9. If I … anything negative about these people, it … no difference for me ( to get to know, to make). 10. If the child … for permission to use the computer, he … to do it ( to ask, to allow). 11. This young man writes as if he … a real writer (to be). 12. They treat us in such a way as if we … the real criminals (to be). 13. You are asking me such questions as if you … me at all (not + trust).
Text: British Police System.Grammar: Infinitive. Gerund.
BRITISH POLICE SYSTEM
There are 155 different police forces in Britain. Each of these forces is a separate body, independent of the others, and each operates only within its own area, under the command of its Chief Constable, and is administrated by its own local police authority.
Police is an agency of a community or government that is responsible for maintaining public order and preventing and detecting crime.
Police forces are composed of police officers. Police officers have the same rates of pay and the same conditions of service, and all are subject to the same code of discipline. Each of them takes the same personal oath of loyalty to the Crown and has the same power and authority under the law. Regular police officers usually serve for 25 years or more and then retire.
There is a hierarchy of ranks with regular grades of subordination chief constables, superintendents, inspectors, sergeants and constables.
A constable has many powers and duties: he alone can arrest persons found committing certain offences and he can arrest on suspicion in certain circumstances, then he must under certain statutes accept an offender and bring him before a magistrate.
In matters of organisation and operation there is a little difference between one police force and another. Each police force has its own headquarters, in which the Chief Constable, his deputy and his staff work. All Chief Constables have common background of police work and a practical knowledge of police matters and problems.
Outside the headquarters, the police area is usually divided into territorial divisions, each under a senior officer. Namely here the performance of duties is arranged and reports of the offices on duty are received and considered. Below the divisional headquarters are the police stations, which form the first point of contact with the public.
police force-поліція, поліцейський підрозділpolice officer-офіцер поліції; поліцейськийconstable-констебль, поліцейський, полісменsergeant-сержант поліцііsuperintendant-старший поліцейський офіцерchief constable-начальник поліції (у місті чи графстві)authority-владаto maintain public order-підтримувати громадський порядокto detect crime-виявляти злочинrates of pay-плата, платняconditions of service-умови службиcode of discipline-дисциплінарний статут (кодекс)oath of loyalty-клятва на вірністьto serve-служитиto retire-піти у відставкуhierarchy of ranks-ієрархія званняsubordination-підпорядкованність,субординаціяto commit a crime (an offence)-учинити злочин (правопорушення)to arrest on suspicion-заарештувати за підозроюcircumstances-обставиниto accept-приймати, прийнятиmagistrate-магістрат, мировий суддяheadquarters-штаб-квартира; головне поліцейське управлінняdeputy-заступник, помічникstaff-склад службовців, особовий складbackground of police work-стаж роботи в поліціїterritorial division-теріторіальний підрозділsenior officer-старший офіцерreport-рапортpolice station-поліцейська ділянка
Ex. 1. Form nouns from the verbs.
To operate, to serve, to prevent, to differ, to divide, to enforce, to arrest, to perform, to preserve, to detect, to maintain, to form, to commit, to surbordinate.
Ex. 2. Read and translate the following of- phrases.
Rates of pay, conditions of service, code of discipline, enforcement of the law, preservation of life and property, oath of loyalty to the Crown, hierarchy of ranks, grades of subordination, powers of the constable, performance of duties, knowledge of police matters, background of police work, headquarters of police, matters of organisation.
Ex. 3. Change the verb phrases to noun phrases.
To enforce the law, to preserve the life and property, to prevent the crime, to arrest an offender, to divide the police area, to serve in police, to perform the duties, to know the police work, to suspect a person.
Ex. 4. Add the necessary words into the sentences.
- There are 155 different … in Britain.
- Police is an agency of a community or government that is responsible for …
- Police officers have the same …
- Each police officer takes … to the Crown.
- Regular police officers usually serve for …
- The powers and duties of the police officers are …
- Each police force has its …
- The police area is usually divided into …
Ex 5. Find the English equivalents in the text:
- заарештувати за підозрою
- ієрархія звань
- виявляти злочин
- учинити злочин
- піти у відставку
- клятва на вірність Короні
- підтримувати громадський порядок
- умови служби
- дисциплінарний статут
Ex. 6. Write what the officer made your friend do when he was apprehended. Start with: The officer made me…
- to show my pockets;
- to sit by the wall;
- to answer the officers questions;
- to call mother;
- to tell about the circumstances;
- to tell the truth;
- to put signature.
Ex. 7. Translate the word-combinations using the following key-word.
Police ► підрозділ, офіцер, ділянка,
Hierarchy of ranks ► констебль, сержант, інспектор,
старший поліцейський офіцер,
Police divisions ► штаб-квартира, теріторіальний
підрозділ, поліцейська ділянка
Ex. 8. Answer the following questions.
- How many police forces are there in Britain?
- Where do they operate?
- What is police responsible for?
- Whom are police forces composed of?
- Do all police officers have the same conditions of service?
- What oath does each constable take?
- What powers and duties has a constable?
- Who is at the head of the police force?
- Who works in the headquarters?
- What kind of work is performed in the territorial divisions?
- What are below the divisional headquarters? What do constables do there?
Ex.9. Translate the sentences and define the forms of Infinitive.
- It is necessary to help him.
- He was the first to have come here.
- I know him to have done this work.
- Police forces operate within its own area to prevent crimes.
- The constable intended to have arrested the offender.
- You could have searched his house alone.
- They must be doing their home task now.
- I would like to see the witness again.
Ex. 10. Write your plans for future:
Model: to work as a solicitor -
My plan for future is to work as a solicitor.
As a judge, as a prosecutor, as an attorney, as a lawmaker, as an investigator, as a criminalist, as an expert, as a criminal psychologist, as a law-enforcement officer.
Ex. 11. Fill in the gaps with the particle to if necessary:
1. Let him…help you with your work at the case. 2. He would rather die than…betray his friends. 3. Have you ever heard him…break the law? 4. She seems…know a great deal about public law. 5. Let them …come as soon as possible. 6. Have you enough information …tell the police about the accident?
Ex. 12. State the functions of the Gerund.
- I remember telling you about their engagement.
- He hated the thought of spending summer in town.
- Smoking is forbidden here.
- He hesitated for a moment before replying.
- I had no idea you would mind answering my question.
- They accuse him of having committed murder.
- Upon graduating from the Academy students are commissioned lieutenants of militia.
- Thank you for being so kind to me.
- The police must fight crime by preventing it.
- I was afraid of saying the wrong thing.
- She went out of the room without looking back.
- Do you really prefer watching this horror film?
Ex. 13. Change the form of the Infinitive into Gerund.
Model: I began to write this exercise.
I began writing the exercise.
- It started to rain in the evening.
- I dont like to interrupt you.
- They were happy to bring good news.
- She was proud to answer all the questions.
- I thought to visit my colleague.
Ex. 14. Translate into English:
1. Я почув, як суддя говорив латиною. 2. Здається, вона багато знає з цивільного права. 3. Припиніть хвилюватися. 4. Вона заперечувала, що працює барістером. 5. Ви колись чули, щоб він порушував закон? 6. Вважали, що дівчині потрібна допомога. 7. Припиніть звинувачувати усіх. 8. Я не заперечую, що я був там учора. 9. Я не очікував, що мене зупинять. 10. Він звинувачує його в тому, що він йому не допоміг.
Text: The United States Police System.Grammar: Participle I. Participle II.
THE UNITED STATES POLICE SYSTEM
In the United States each political unit may have its own police. Therefore, police agencies of various types, and having general or specialised functions, exist at all levels of government. One should mention about some of the most important agencies at the various levels.
At the federal level, several departments have their own investigative units, which are charged with the enforcement of the particular laws over which its department has jurisdiction.
The state police forces of America differ considerably in functions and origin. The majority of state police forces have full law enforcement powers. Other states have state-wide organisations that are charged with the patrol of the highways. They are restricted to the enforcement of traffic laws and may only deal with crimes committed on the state highways.
Some states have established state bureaus of identification which operate at the state level as clearing houses for criminal identification and investigation. In all states various departments have minor investigative units, each of which is charged with the enforcement of the particular laws with which its department deals.
In some states detective forces operate separately from the state police and, in some cases, special investigating police are attached directly to the office of the governor.
At the local level almost every particular unit has some kind of police. The county has a sheriff with as many deputies as he may appoint. Some counties have their own police forces, which either duplicate the sheriffs jurisdiction or actually displace it. The township has a constable; the village or town - a marshal or a very small police force; and the city a municipal police department.
A recruit, when accepted, undergoes rigorous and intensive training before he is permitted to perform the duties of a constable. Many state police academies are considered to be among the best of their kind, offering not only recruit and specialist training but also promotion courses.
political unit-політична одиницяpolice agency-поліцейський органCentral Intelligence Agency-Центральне розвідувальне управлінняlevel-рівеньinvestigative unit-слідчий органto investigate-розслідувати, вивчатиinvestigator-слідчийinvestigation-Розслідуванняto charge with murder-звинувачувати у вбивствіto be charged with-бути відповідальним (за)to be responsible for-бути відповідальним (за)particular-1) детальний; 2) особливийjurisdiction-правосуддя; юрисдикціяconsiderably-Значноlaw enforcement powers-уповноваження у сфері правозастосуванняpatrol-l) патруль, варта; 2) патрулюванняhighways-магістраль, шосеto be restricted-бути обмеженимtraffic-транспорт; рухtraffic officer (cop)-автоінспекторtraffic laws-правила дорожнього рухуtraffic light-світлофорto identify-встановлювати особистістьidentification-1) розпізнавання, пізнавання;2) ідентифікаціяclearing houses-база данихto detect (crime)-розкрити злочинdetection-виявлення, розкриття злочинуdetective-детектив; агент розшукуdetective force-підрозділ розшукуoffice of the governor-офіс правителя, губернатораtownship-містечко; районmarshal-маршал, начальник поліцейської дільниці municipal police department-муніципальний поліцейський департамент recruit-рекрут, новобранецьto undergo rigorous and intensive training-проходити сувору та напружену підготовкуpromotion courses-курси підвищення кваліфікації
Ex. 1. Read the following word-combinations and translate them into Ukrainian.
Political unit, police agencies, investigative units, full law enforcement powers, patrol of the highways, traffic laws, bureaus of identification, clearing houses, detective forces, recruit training, specialist training, promotion courses, sheriffs jurisdiction.
Ex. 2. Change the verb phrases to the noun phrases.
To enforce the law, to establish the clearing houses, to identify а person, to operate within its own territory, to organise the patrol of the highways, to investigate the crime, to perform the duties of a constable, to offer promotion courses.
Ex. 3. Put the necessary words into the sentences. Translate them into Ukrainian.
- In the USA each political unit may have its own …
- … of various types exist at all levels of government.
- The state police forces of America vary in …
- … are charged with the enforcement of the particular laws over which its department has jurisdiction.
- State bureaus of identification operate as …
- The county has …; the township …; the village or town …; and the city…
- A recruit undergoes…
- Police academies offer …
Ex. 4. Give the proper definition for:
police ► a) someone, especially a police officer, whose
job is to discover information about a crime
identification ► b) a set of red, green, and yellow lights that is
used to stop and start traffic
detective ► c) the official organisation that makes people obey the law and
that protects people and places agaist crime, or the people
who work for this organization
traffic light ► d) when you recognize and can name someone or something
investigate ► e) a main road, especially between two towns or cities
highway ► f) to try to discover all the factsabout something,
especially a crime or accident
Ex 5. Find the English equivalents in the text:
- Центральне розвідувальне управління
- курси підвищення кваліфікації
- розкрити злочин
- база даних
- слідчий орган
- встановлювати особистість
- звинувачувати у вбивстві
- патрулювання шосе
- поліцейський орган
- уповноваження у сфері правозастосування
Ex 6. Fill in the gaps in these questions with a suitable word from the box. Answer the questions:
punishment spray fight carry allowed defence
- Do you think the police should … guns?
- Do you agree with the capital … for certain crimes such as murder?
- Do you think the police should be … to stop and question people without special reason?
- Do you think it should be legal for people to carry a …?
- Do you think people should be allowed to use a gun or knife in self-… .
- Do you think tougher punishment will help to … crime.
Ex. 7. Find the wrong statements.
The duties of the police forces are:
- to protect life and property;
- to impose sentence;
- to prevent crime;
- to detect offenders;
- to decide guilt or innocence;
- to preserve public order;
- to enforce the law;
- to arrest suspects.
Ex. 8. Translate the words in the box into Ukrainian an put them with the following incidents. Some of them can be used twice.
accident electricity steal victim kill dangerous passport shock ambulance wallet fire flood injured package gas ground floor gun burn mugger drown driving licence bomb explode witness burglar
a) an emergency at home
b) a road accident
c) a bomb alert
d) a mugging
e) a flood
Ex. 9. Answer the following questions.
- What kind of police agencies exist in the USA?
- What kind of forces are there at the federal level? What are they responsible for?
- What is state bureau of identification concerned with?
- What are investigative units charged with?
- What kind of police is there at the local level?
- What kind of training should a recruit undergo?
- What do police academies deal with?
Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the usage of Participle I, Participle II. Underline them.
1.Runnung into the road, the young man stopped a taxi. 2. She went out, leaving the door open. 3. Coming to the cinema, she saw the movie had already begun. 4. Looking out of the window, he saw the detective questioning the witnesses. 5. The man standing near the bank is a former criminal. 6. Hearing the coming steps, she stopped talking. 7. Everyone looked at the dancing lady. 8. Patrolling the highways, the constable detained the suspect. 9. She watched the children playing in the yard. 10. Looking for evidence, the policeman found the fingerprints of a murder. 11. The Queen is the living symbol of the unity of the nation. 12. The suspect confessed in committing the crime, when questioned closely. 13. Having found а pack of documents, Jack brought it to the police station.
Ex. 11. Open the brackets, choosing the proper Participle.
- The boy (writing, written) on the blackboard is our best student.
- Everything (writing, written) here is quite right.
- Read the (translating, translated) sentences once more.
- When we came nearer, we saw two stranges (coming, came) towards us.
- The (losing, lost) child was found at last.
- Here is the letter (receiving, receives) by a Chief Constable yesterday.
- (Taking, taken) the girl by the hand, Mary helped her to cross the street.
- I picked up the pistol (lying, lain) on the ground.
- Name some places (visiting, visited) by you last year.
- She was reading the book (buying, bought) the day before yesterday.
Ex. 12. Find the Participle, the Gerund and the Infinitive. Translate the sentences.
1. I was pleased to have the opportunity to do something for my friends. 2. Not knowing what to do, he applied to me for advice. 3. To start with, I forgot what the conversation was about. 4. It was too cold to hold the conference outside. 5. What I would like to do is to see him and convince to start the job of investigating this crime. 6. He waited for a moment before answering this question. 7. Not having found my key in its usual place, I went on searching for it around the flat.
Text: Judiciary of Ukraine.Grammar: Sequence of Tenses.
JUDICIARY OF UKRAINE
The sphere in which the law operates is quite extensive. It embraces our life and work, determines the legal status of every citizen. That's why it is very important to know all peculiarities of the judicial system of the country.
97 per cent of all criminal cases and 99 per cent of all civil cases are examined in the principal link of Ukrainian judicial system - the people's courts of districts and towns. The most serious offences ere examined by the courts of regions. The Supreme Court of Ukraine only examines cases of particular complexity or of special public significance, and does so either upon its own decision, or upon the initiative of the Procurator of Ukraine.
The judicial system of Ukraine consists of district (town) People's Courts, regional and territorial courts, the Supreme Court, military tribunals (for servicemen). All the country's judicial bodies are elected. The population elects judges and people's assessors.
The legality of the court's activities is controlled by the Procurator's Office which has the right of protest in a higher court. However, the procurator himself has no right to cancel a verdict.
The Procurator's Office exercises general supervision over the observance of laws on the part of executive organs, officials and individual citizens.
The Procurator-General of Ukraine is appointed by Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian Parliament).
The legislation of Ukraine makes it binding on the court, the procurator and investigator to ensure all-round, complete and fair examination of all the circumstances of the case. In most criminal cases the court hearing is preceded by the complicated work of collecting and investigating evidence. According to Ukrainian procedural law this stage is called preliminary investigation. The conclusions arrived at by the investigator and procurator regarding the guilt of a person have preliminary character. The court alone decides on penalty to be applied to the person guilty of a crime.
In cases provided for by the law, the court alone has the right to decide which of the parties has violated the law. The Judges hand down decisions only in keeping with their internal conviction, with the law and in conformity with the circumstances of the case. No person can regard guilty or subjected to legal punishment until sentence has been passed by a court of law. All citizens of Ukraine are equal before the law.
extensive -обширнийto embrace -обнімати, обійматиpeculiarity-особливість criminal case -кримінальна справаcivil case -цивільна справаto examine -досліджувати, оглядатиsignificance-значення, зміст, сенсprocurator-повірений, прокурорthe Procurator's Office -прокуратураjudge-суддяassessor -експертobservance-додержання, виконання (законів)to ensure-гарантувати, забезпечуватиfair-справедливий, чесний circumstances -обставини, умовиto precede -передуватиevidence-підстава, доказ preliminary-попереднійconclusion-закінчення, завершенняGuilt-провина, провинністьguilty-винний, винуватийpenalty-покарання, штрафto violate-порушувати, ламатиconviction-переконанняconformity-відповідністьpunishment-кара, покаранняsentence-вирок, рішення
Ex. 1. Read and translate the following words.
Судочинство, судоустрій, строк перебування на посаді, процес, справедливо, винен, справедлива кара, Верховний суд, федеральний районний суд, апелляційний суд, судовий розгляд, недоторканість, засновувати, забороняти, суддя, Конституційний суд, призначати, адвокат, цивільний процес, звинувач, судова влада, майно.
Ex. 2. Put the necessary words into the sentences.
- A court is an institution that …
- Disputes come to the court when …
- Courts decide what …
- Courts play an important ...
- The lawyers' task is to bring out ...
- The lawyers represent interests of ...
- The lawyers are prepared to furnish ...
- The lawyers serve a variety of ...
- The firm represents clients' interests in ...
- 10. Our firm has extensive experience in …
Ex. 3. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to using of sequence of tenses of the verbs.
- He says that he lived in Kiev.
- He said that he lived in Kiev.
- He said that he had lived in Kiev.
- The students knew what they would prepare for examinations.
- The teacher knows that all the students are present at the lesson.
- The teacher knew that everybody was at the English lesson.
- He thought that his friend would work the following week.
Ex. 4. Choose the right form of the verb. Pay attention to using of sequence of tenses of the verbs.
- They thought that the trial (held, had held, would be held) the following week.
- Police officers were sure that they (arrested, had arrested, would arrest) all the members of that criminal band the previous month.
- The driver was sure that he (went, had gone, would go) the right side of the road in London.
- The man didnt know that the pick-pocket (stole, had stolen, would steal) his purse in the crowded bus.
- The policeman knew that the teenagers (met, had met, would meet) in that place to buy drugs.
Ex. 5. Answer the following questions.
- What are the main types of courts in the Ukrainian court system?
- What does legal procedure system consist of?
- What functions do regional and district courts carry out?
- What is a court?
- What institution settles disputes through a legal process?
- What role does a court play in the life of society?
- Are the judges of the Supreme Court elected or appointed?
- Are the judges of District Courts appointed in Ukraine?
Text: British Judicial System.Grammar: Sequence of Tences. Direct and Indirect speech.
BRITISH JUDICIAL SYSTEM
There is no single body of law in Britain and there are differences between the separate systems, especially between Scotland and the rest of the country. However, some features are common to all systems: the sources of law, the distinction between criminal law, which is concerned with wrongs against the whole community, and civil law concerned with the rights, duties and obligations of individuals between themselves.
The English criminal law has never been reduced to a single code. The sources of law include statutes (Acts of Parliament) and unwritten or common law, based on judicial precedent. In this system, court decisions establish legal principles and rules of law. They also call the common law case law or judge-made law.
In England there are two main classes of trial courts: the Magistrates Court and the Crown Court. Magistrates Courts are lower courts of trial in which less serious offences are tried before magistrates without a jury. More serious cases are also brought before Magistrates Courts, but the proceedings then do not amount to a trial, they are only a preliminary investigation. Magistrates Courts, sometimes called police courts, try the majority of criminal cases and some civil cases. They are courts of summary jurisdiction.
The Crown Courts sit in various circuit centres for the trial of serious criminal offences before a judge and jury. The courts are presided over by a High Court judge or by a Circuit judge. The Crown Courts have a double function. Sitting without a jury they hear appeals from Magistrates Courts. The Crown Court for London is called the Central Criminal Court. Trials in this court are presided over either by a High Court judge or by one of the special judges, such as the Recorder of the City of London.
The High Court hears those civil cases that cannot be decided by County courts. The Court of Criminal Appeal hears appeals from the Crown Courts and the House of Lords is the supreme court of appeal in criminal matters.
Judicial-судовийsource of law-джерело праваdistinction-різниця; розбіжність; відмінністьwrong-неправда; правопорушення; делікт; злоcourt-суд (амер.) суддя, суддіcase-випадок; судове діло, судове рішення з ділаcase law (judge-made law)-прецедентне правоjudge-суддя; (глаг.) розглядати діло; судитиto try-судити; разглядати (діло); випробуватиtrial-судовий розгляд, процес; слухання ділаfeature-характерна особливість, рисаmagistratescourt-магістратський суд, мировий судjury-присяжні; суд присяжнихto bring a case before the court-возбудити судову справуproceeding(s)-процесуальна дія;судова процедураsummary jurisdiction-сумарне судочинство, юрисдикціяcircuit-судова округаHigh Court (of Justice)-Високий суд (правосуддя)appeal-апеляція, проханняRecorder (of London)-суддя, управомочений Центральним кримінальним судомcounty court-суд графства; суд округи штатаcourt of appeal (court of appellate jurisdiction) -апеляційний суд to concern-стосуватися, відноситисяto be concerned with (syn. to deal with)-мати справу, займатисяto reduce-скорочувати; сводити
Ex. 1. Read the following words and translate them into Ukrainian.
Define the parts of the speech.
Separate, system, criminal, individual, civil, statute, act, precedent, legal, principle, class, serious, jury, police, jurisdiction, centre, function, central, special, appeal.
Ex. 2. Find the equivalents:
the sources of lawєдиний кодексwrongs against communityджерела праваa single codeпопереднє розслідуванняcourt decisionsапеляційний судa preliminary investigationправопорушення проти суспільстваthe court of appealsрішення судуa single body of lawєдиний свод законів
Ex. 3. Translate the word-combinations into English using the following words.
- Case (кримінальна справа, цивільна справа, серйозна справа).
- Law (кримінальне право, цивільне право, прецедентне право, неписане право, загальне право).
- Court (суд з кримінальних справ, суд з цивільних справ, поліцейський суд, суд сумарної юрисдикції, королевський суд, мировий суд, апеляційний суд).
Ex. 4. Put the necessary words into the sentences.
- There is no single … in Britain.
- In England there are two main classes of trial courts: …
- Magistrates Courts try ... without a jury.
- The Crown Courts hear … from Magistrates Courts and try … with a jury.
- The Crown Court for London is called …
Ex. 5. Find the wrong word in the group of the following words. Translate them into Ukrainian.
- Common law statute article act civil law criminal law legislative body.
- Rights wrongs obligations duties freedoms.
- Judge jury the clerk of the court defendant policeman.
Ex. 6. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian and define the voice of the verbs.
- Acts of Parliament and unwritten law are based on judicial precedent.
- Magistrates try less serious offences in the Magistrates Courts without a jury.
- The legal principles and rules of English law are also called "judge-made law".
- The most serious criminal offences and appeals from Magistrates Courts are tried in the Crown Courts.
- The Court of Criminal Appeal hears appeals from the Crown Courts and the House of Lords.
Ex. 7. Rewrite sentences as in the model:
Model: I am very busy. (Frank)
Frank said he was very busy.
- The rule of law protects citizens from the state (the legislator).
- We are going to settle the dispute (Philip).
- John is suspected of murder (Alfred).
- Legal decisions are always based on firm cases (the lawyer).
- They went to the Prosecutors Office (Jerry).
- He was giving evidence that moment (Frank).
- They work as notaries (Kelly).
Ex. 8. Put the following statements into Indirect speech.
Model: My colleague said: "I study the fingerprints of that man".
My colleague said that he studied the fingerprints of that man.
- The police officer said: "I will tell you this information tomorrow".
- The accused said: "I can not afford to have an attorney".
- My friend said: "I have to finish the investigation".
- The judge said: "We have no sufficient evidence".
- The man said: "I saw that woman in the crime scene".
Ex. 9. Turn these into Indirect speech, beginning I didnt know:
Model: There is no written constitution in the UK.
I didnt know that there was no written constitution in the UK.
- Laws in the UK can be passed by a simple majority.
- The English legal system is based on common law.
- Great Britain has been a nation that holds on tight to its traditions.
- The Queen is responsible for appointing Bishops to the Church.
- The Prime Ministers power is based on the loyalty of his party.
- This famous barrister will represent James in court.
- The main feature of common law has always been its foundation on case law.
Ex.10. Answer the following questions.
- Is there a single code in England?
- What do the sources of law include?
- What are the main classes of trial courts in England?
- What do Magistrates Courts try? Who sits for the trial there?
- What courts are also called courts of summary jurisdiction?
- What courts have a double function? What do they try?
- Who sits for the trial in the Crown Court?
- What is the Crown Court for London?
- What is the supreme court of appeal in criminal matters?
Text: The United States Court System.Grammar: Indirect speech.
THE UNITED STATES COURT SYSTEM
The third branch of the federal government, the judiciary, consists of a system of courts throughout the country, headed by the Supreme Court of the United States. The whole country is divided into districts, each having a federal court. The present federal court system includes the Supreme Court, 11 courts of appeals, 91 district courts and 5 courts of special jurisdiction.
The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices who are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The responsibility and power of these nine people are extraordinary. The Supreme Court is the court of final appeal, its main work is to make the final decision in legal cases in which a charge of violation of the Constitution is made. Supreme Court decisions can affect the lives of all Americans and can change society significantly.
The second highest level of the federal judiciary is made up of the courts of appeals. The United States is divided into eleven judicial circuits, each served by a court of appeals. As a rule, the court of appeals sits with three judges on the bench. They review the district courts decisions within their areas.
The district courts are the lowest ones in the federal court system. These courts try most of the criminal and civil cases. They are the only federal courts where trials are held with the jury. Decisions of the district courts may be appealed in one of the eleven courts of appeals and in the Supreme Court.
In addition to the federal courts of general jurisdiction it has been necessary to set up courts for special purposes. There are separate military courts for members of the armed forces and other specialised courts to handle matters ranging from tax questions to immigration violations.
Besides, each state has established a system of courts, including a state supreme court, to deal with civil, criminal and appellate proceedings. There are also county and city courts. Even the smallest villages have a local judge, called a "justice of the peace", who handles minor legal matters.
The constitution safeguards judicial independence by providing that federal judges shall hold office until they die, retire or resign, although a judge who commits an offence while in office may be impeached in the same way as the president or other officials of the federal government.
Judiciary-судова система; судова влада; судочинствоchief justice-головний суддяassociate justice-член судуjudicial circuit-судова округаviolation-порушенняviolence-насильство, примушенняjustice of the peace-мировий суддяminor-незначний, неповнолітній, підлітокto handleto resign -розглядати, розбирати; керуватипіти у відставкуto hold office-займати посаду
Ex. 1. Read the words and translate them into Ukrainian.
The Senate, president, extraordinary, final appeal, legal, interpreting, facts, situation, immigration, municipal, local.
Ex. 2. Find the equivalents:
the responsibilityпорушення конституціїthe final decisionвідповідальністьviolation of the Constitutionсудовий розглядtrialправові питанняjustice of the peaceмировий суддяjudicial independenceостаннє рішенняlegal mattersсудова незалежність
Ex. 3. Translate the word-combinations into English using the following words.
- Federal (федеральний уряд, федеральна система судів, федеральне судочинство, федеральні суди, федеральний суддя).
- Final (останнє рішення, фінальна апеляція).
- District (окружний суд, рішення окружного суду).
- Court (Верховний суд, апеляційний суд, окружний суд, суд спеціальної юрисдикції, суд загальної юрисдикції, суд міста, муніципальний суд).
- Proceeding (кримінальний процес, цивільний процес, апеляційний процес).
Ex. 4. Combine the words into word-combinations and translate them into Russian:
to makecriminal and civil cases to trya trial with the juryto holdthe presidentto listen tothe final decisionto considertestimonyto electevidenceto safeguardjudicial independence
Ex. 5. Change the verb phrases to noun phrases and translate them into Ukrainian.
To appoint the Senate, to violate the Constitution, to decide the facts of the case, to establish a court system, to govern the country.
Ex. 6. Add the sentences.
- The present federal court system includes …
- The Supreme Court consists of …
- The main work of the Supreme Court is …
- The appeals court sits with …
- The courts of appeals review …
- The district courts try …
- The supreme court of each state deals with …
Ex. 7. Practise using “asked if / asked whether”.
Model: Are you married? (Peter) asked me if I am married.
- Are you hungry?
- Did you enjoy your vocation?
- Do you need any help?
- Have you ever been to London?
- Do you think its going to rain?
- Will you be at home tonight?
- Can you hear me?
Ex. 8. Change the following sentences into Indirect speech as in the model:
Model: Where are you going?
She asked where I was going.
- Do you work as a legal adviser or a prosecutor?
- Has he presented the evidence?
- Did he have a personal interest in the case?
- What does the legislative process involve?
- Where are the members of the House of Lords drawn from?
- What are the chambers of the UK Parliament?
- What is the highest court in the United Kingdom?
Ex. 9. Answer the following questions.
- What is the third branch of the federal government?
- What does the present federal court system include?
- What is the highest level of the federal judiciary?
- What is the structure of the Supreme Court?
- What is the main work of the Supreme Court?
- What is the second level of the federal judiciary?
- What do the district courts try?
- What is the structure of the state court system?
Topic: Criminal law.Grammar: Compound and Complex sentences. The Conjunction.
Criminal law is the part of the law which is concerned with crimes. Criminal law may be defined by three basic elements. First, it prevents harm to society and its members. Second, it specifies what conduct is considered criminal. Third, it identifies prescribed sanctions for criminal conduct.
The first element, preventing harm, implies that a central purpose of criminal law is to protect society from various activities that might injure its members or social institutions. Vandalism, murder, assault, robbery, theft of personal property are examples of harms typically associated with violations of criminal law. Criminal law provides social control for society.
The second element, specification of what conduct, is criminal, refers to the particular act or acts defined as illegal. Criminal law provides that every outlawed act is separately detailed and described.
The third aspect of the definition of criminal law involves prescriptions for punishment. Criminal law presumes that one cannot be punished for committing a crime unless one has been convicted of violating a law.
Crime is conduct that society classifies as illegal, it is a violation of criminal law. To qualify as crime, behavior must be specifically defined in the law, be enforced by some political body and associated with prescribed penalties.
Usually, crimes are classified as either felonies or misdemeanors. Often, the distinctions between them are made on the basis of the length of sentence imposed for the crime. Felonies are most serious crimes and carry lengthier sentences than misdemeanors, such as imprisonment in a state prison for several years. Misdemeanors are less serious crimes for which fines and shorter jail time may be imposed.
to be defined-визначатиto prevent harm-запобігати шкодиsociety-суспільство, громадаto specify-встановлюватиconduct-поведінкаto imply-припускати, передбачатиto injure-пошкодити, образитиassault -напад, атакаrobbery-грабіжtheft-крадіжкаviolation-порушенняto refer to-віднести доoutlawed /illegal act-незаконний акт, діяpunishment-кара, покаранняto be convicted of smth-бути засудженимpenalty-стягнення, штрафfelony-кримінальний злочин, фелоніяmisdemeanor-провина, злочин,to impose sentence-винести вирокprison /jail-тюрма, вязниця imprisonment-увязнювати
Ex. 1. Read the following words and word-combinations. Translate them into Ukrainian.
Criminal law, personal, illegal act, basic element, prescribed sanction, detail, central purpose, institution, vandalism, definition, serious offences, violation of law, sentence, imprisonment, penalty.
Ex. 2. Find the synonyms.
Conduct, offence, jail, ownership, penalty, prison, crime, behaviour, illegal, criminal, offender, punishment, property, outlawed.
Ex. 3. Change the verb phrases to noun phrases.
To protect society from various crimes, to prevent the crime to society, to identify prescribed sanctions, to define the criminal law, to violate criminal law, to provide the social control, to specify outlawed act, to prescribe sanctions for punishment, to classify illegal conduct.
Ex. 4. Add the necessary words into the sentences.
- Criminal law is …
- The central purpose of criminal law is …
- Crime is …
- Crimes are classified as …
- Felonies are those crimes for which … may be imposed and for misdemeanours may be imposed …
Ex. 5. Give the proper definition for:
crime ► a) a crime which is not serious
criminal ► b) illegal activity
conduct ► c) the way smb. behaves
felony ► d) a place where criminals are kept as a punishment
misdemeanor ► e) someone who has commited a crime
prison ► f) a serious crime
Ex. 6. Read these sentences and find wrong statements.
- Criminal law provides social control for society.
- Crime is a legal conduct.
- Felonies are less serious crimes than misdemeanours.
- Theft of personal property is a violation of criminal law.
- There are no distinctions between felonies and misdemeanours.
- Death sentence may be imposed for felonies.
- Criminal law does not provide punishment for outlawed act.
- The central purpose of criminal law is to protect society and its members.
Ex. 7. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and word-combinations.
DIFINITION OF CRIMINALS
Thiefis a person who steals some things from a person or place secretly without any kind of violenceBurglaris a person who enters a building during the hours of darkness in order to stealRobberis a person who steals some things from a person or place, especially by violence or threatShop-lifteris a person who steals food or clothes from the shopsPick-pocketis a person who steals money or purses out of peoples pockets in all kinds of vehicles or in a crowded streetsKidnapperis a person who takes away people by force and demands money for themMurdereris a person who kills somebodyAccompliceis a person who helps a criminal in a criminal actDrug dealeris a person who buys and sells drugs to other people illegallyBigamistis a person who marries illegally, being married alreadyTraitoris a person who betrays his or her country to another stateForgeris a person who makes false money or signaturesSmuggleris a person who gets goods into or out of a country illegally not paying any taxSpyis a person who gets secret information from another countryTerroristis a person who uses violence for political, economical and religious reasonsArsonistis a person who sets fire to property illegallyGangsteris a member of a criminal group
Ex. 8. Put the words given above into the sentences.
- A lot of money was stolen from the central bank by a …
- Last week the famous … took a box of precious things from the jewellers shop.
- A … has broken the window of the expensive car and stolen the tape-recorder.
- Police arrested a … selling drugs in a disco-club.
- The rich mans child was taken away by a …
- Police found a … who had killed three persons.
- A … stole all money and credit cards from my friends pocket in the crowded bus.
- Al Capone was a Chicago …
- This picture is not really by Picasso. It was made by a …
- I cant marry him. I have already known that he has two wives, he is a …
Ex. 9. Put the right form of either ROB or STEAL in the sentences below.
- Last night an armed gang ________the post officer.
- They _________£5,000.
- My handbag was __________at the cinema yesterday.
- Every year a large number of banks are___________.
- Mary ________some food in the market as she had no money to buy it and was caught by the police officer.
Ex. 10. Answer the following questions.
- What is criminal law concerned with?
- What are the basic elements of criminal law?
- What is the main purpose of criminal law?
- What does criminal law provide?
- What is crime?
- What does criminal law presume?
- How are crimes classified by the judicial systems?
- What is felony?
- What is misdemeanour?
- What kind of crimes belong to the felonies and which to misdemeanours?
Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences and define the kinds of adverbial clauses.
- She spoke as if she was in a dream.
- She turned over so that the light from the other room did not fall on her eyes.
- I was just curious, though it wasnt any of my business.
- Years have passed since we began this trip.
- If a witness is able to identify the suspect accurately, a positive identification has been made.
- She held out the telegram so that I might see it.
- Since there is no help, let us try and bear it as best we can.
- The investigation will be considered successful if the witnesses intelligently interviewed.
- A large crowd is standing where the crime was committed.
- The air is not so cold now as it was in the early morning.
Ex. 12. Translate the following sentences and define the types of subordinate clauses.
- Students are expected to take action as if they were on normal duty.
- As soon as I heard of her death, I felt convicted that she had told him everything before she died.
- The Constitution requires that any accused person must have every opportunity to demonstrate his or her innocence.
- A criminal investigator is a person who collects facts to identify and locate the guilty party and to prove evidence of his guilty.
- The Senate does not approve an appointment until its members are satisfied that the candidate is qualified.
- It is important to understand that not all persons who break rules are criminals.
Ex. 13. Translate the following sentences. Put the necessary Conjunctions.
as well as and but neither either nor or both
- Criminal law … other laws provides social control for society.
- Both the policeman … the criminal were armed well.
- The Queen does not take part in politics … the country is governed in her name.
- We could find him … at the university nor at home.
- We will … be going to the theatre or the cinema.
- Because of the Bill of Rights, police can not stop and search or arrest a person without good reason, … can they search anyones home without clear cause and the permission of a court.
- Trial courts listen to testimony, consider evidence … decide the facts in disputed situations.
- You must hurry … you will be late.
- Interrogation includes the skilful questioning of witnesses … suspects.
- … my colleague and I have already gathered all the facts relevant to the case.
- He wanted to know more about that case … there was no any information.
- We will either go to the library … prepare for the exams at home.
Ex. 14..Put the beginnings and ends together.
BEGINNINGSENDSAlthough he was very badtempered,Always brush your teethAlways wash your handsAs Liz told you,Because I knew her family,Talk to me like that againDont do that againHe had a terrible temper,Liz explained to youI was sorry for her,If you do that again,Therell be troubleafter you have a meal.and Ill hit you.before you have a meal.but everybody liked him.he had lots of friends.I did what I could for her.her mother left for Berlin last Friday.or Ill hit you.so I tried to help her.that her mother went back home last week.unless you stop that.youll be sorry.
Topic: Investigation.Grammar: Complext Subject. Complex Object.
A criminal investigator is a person who collects facts to accomplish a threefold aim: to identify and locate the guilty party and to present evidence of his guilt.
The investigation process includes information, interrogation and instrumentation. By applying them in varying proportions the investigator gathers the facts which are necessary to establish the guilt of the accused in a criminal trial.
Most crimes can be solved. The investigation will be considered successful if the available physical evidence was completely handled, the witnesses intelligently interviewed, the suspect effectively interrogated, all logical leads properly developed, and the case comprehensively, clearly, and accurately reported.
Information means the knowledge which the investigator gathers from other persons. The first type of information is acquired from regular sources such as conscientious citizens, company records, and the files of other agencies. The second type is the knowledge which the experienced investigator gathers from cultivated sources such as paid informants, bartenders, cab drivers, former criminals or acquaintances.
Interrogation includes the skilful questioning of witnesses as well as suspects. The success of interrogation depends on the craft, logic and psychological insight with which the investigator questions a person who is in possession of information relevant to the case.
Instrumentation means application of the instruments and methods of the physical sciences to the detection of crime. Physics, for example, offers such aids as microscopy, photography, and the optical methods of analysis. The role of chemistry is well known. Biology and pathology are particularly important in crimes of physical violence. The sum of these sciences insofar as they are applied to crime detection is called criminalistics. Their utility is associated with physical evidence.
The investigation may be divided into three phases: 1) the criminal is identified; 2) he is traced and located; and 3) the facts proving his guilt are gathered for court presentation.
to collect/ gather facts-збирати фактиto accomplish-здійснювати, виконуватиthreefold aim-потрійна метаto present evidence-подавати доказиguilt-вина, провинаguilty-винний, винуватийinterrogation-допит, опитуванняinstrumentation-вимірювальні приладиaccused-обвинуваченийto solve a crime-розкрити злочинsuccessful-успішний, вдалийphysical evidence-речовий доказto interview witnesses-опитувати свідківsuspect-підозрюванийto suspect-підозрюватиconscientious citizens-сумлінні громадяниcultivated sources-відпрацьовані джерелаinformant-донощик, інформаторbartender-барменacquaintances-знайоміpsychological insight-психологічне розуміння, проникливістьpossession of information-володіння інформацієюphysical sciences-природничі наукиaid-допомога, підстримкаphysical violence-фізичне насильствоto trace-простежитиto be located-бути розташованим
Ex. 1. Read the words and find Ukrainian equivalents.
Criminal investigator, to collect facts, to accomplish a threefold aim, to present evidence, investigation process, physical evidence, to interrogate the suspect, to interview a witness, company records, experienced investigator, conscientious citizens, former criminals, psychological insight, crime detection, physical violence, logics, method, microscopy, photography, analyses, criminalistics.
Ex. 2. Add the necessary words into the sentences.
- A criminal investigator is …
- The investigation process includes: …
- The investigation will be considered successful if the available … was completely handled, the witnesses intelligently …, the … effectively interrogated.
- Information means…
- Interrogation includes …
- Instrumentation is …
- Criminalistics means …
- The investigation may be divided into three phases: …
Ex. 3. Derive nouns from the following verbs.
To apply, to identify, to divide, to punish, to imprison, to develop, to locate, to prevent, to define, to present, to report, to investigate, to interrogate, to collect, to accomplish, to interview, to detect.
Ex 4. Find the English equivalents in the text:
- речовий доказ
- відпрацьовані джерела
- здійснити потрійну мету
- оптичний метод аналізу
- вимірювальні прилади
- досвідчений слідчий
- допитати свідка
- фізичне насильство
- довести провину особи
Ex. 5. Give the proper definition for:
investigator ► a) the person or people who are accused of a crime in a
court of law
informant ► b) smb. who may have commited a crime
suspect ► c) smb. who tries to discover all the facts about something,
especially as their job
witness ► d) information that is given or objects that are shown in a
court of law to help to prove if someone has commited a
accused ► e) smb. who gives information to someone
evidence ► f) smb. who sees an accident or crime
Ex. 6. Answer the following questions.
- Who is a criminal investigator?
- What does the investigation process include?
- When will the investigation be considered successful?
- What does information mean?
- What types of information do you know?
- What is interrogation?
- What does instrumentation include?
- What does the success of interrogation depend on?
- What is instrumentation?
- What physical sciences are important for crime detection?
- How many phases may the investigation be divided into? What are they?
Ex. 7. WORD STUDY: translate the pairs of sentences and explain the difference in the meanings of the following words. Decide from the context what the word could mean, then make your own examples.
1. accident / incident
a. A bomb exploded in a department store but no one was killed in the incident.
b. Her father was killed in a car accident.
2. matter / case
a. This piece of land is the main matter of dispute.
b. Have you ever dealt with carriage cases?
c. It is a matter of a few hours.
3. crime / offence
a. This act of terrorism is considered as a crime against humanity.
b. Most prosecutions for crime are brought by police.
c. I think it is a real offence against the law.
d. Offences may be classified either felonies or misdemeanors.
4. proof / evidence
a. This evidence is reliable and can be admissible.
b. This requires no proof.
c. The words of this passer-by need to be proved.
d. Evidence consists of testimony, documentary evidence, real evidence and, when admissible, hearsay evidence.
5. inguiry / investigation
a. The investigator has made inquiries about the suspects.
b. An inquiry into a death, the cause of which was unknown, was conducted by a coroner.
c. Who is responsible for the results of the investigation?
6. scene / place
a. There is no place like home.
b. What place do you come from?
c. The scene is laid in France.
d. It was striking scene.
Ex. 8. Complete the gaps with the words given below. Use a dictionary where necessary.
theft fine pleaded fingerprintfound handcuff evidence arrest cell witnesses sentence oath investigate magistrate charge detainedcourt
A policeman was sent to (a) … the disappearance of some property from a hotel. When he arrived, he found that the hotel staff had caught a boy in one of the rooms with a camera and some cash. When the policeman tried to (b) … the boy, he became violent and the policeman had to (c) … him. At the police station the boy could not give a satisfactory explanation for his actions and the police decided to (d) … him with (e) … of the camera and cash. They took his (f) …, locked him in a (g) …, and (h) … him overnight. The next morning he appeared in (i) … before the (j) … . He took an (k) … and (1) … not guilty. Two (m) … the owner of the property and a member of the hotel staff, gave (n) … . After both sides of the case had been heard, the boy was (o) … guilty. He had to pay a (p) … of £50 and he was given a (q) … of three months in prison suspended for two years.
Ex. 9. Paraphrase the following sentences, use Complex Object as in an example.
Model: He was reading in his room. She saw him.
She saw him reading in his room.
She dropped her bag. I saw it.
I saw her drop her bag.
1. We saw Tom. He was crossing the road. 2. She bent and picked up something from the floor. The policemen saw it. 3. They were talking about the murder. He heard them. 4. We noticed a group of people. They were searching for the missing girl. 5. We saw that the criminal escaped through the window. 6. You and your cousin were walking along the street yesterday. I saw you. 7. My friend saw him. He pointed to a man in the car. 8. We saw our neighbour. He was listening to the latest news on the radio.
Ex. 10. Paraphrase the following sentences, use Complex Subject as in an example.
Model: It appeared that they had lost the way.
They appeared to have lost the way.
1. It seems they know all about the accident. 2. It seems those men have heard all about the burglary. 3. It seemed that the house had not been lived in for a long time. 4. It appeared that I was present at the crime scene. 5. It turned out that my prediction was correct. 6. It so happened that I overheard their conversation. 7. It appeared he was loosing patience. 8. It seemed that the discussion was coming to an end.
Ex.11. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Pay attention to the usage of Complex Subject and Complex Object.
- He is supposed to be innocent of the crime.
- I heard him screaming.
- The terrorist was announced to have been killed by his own bomb.
- Nobody noticed him come in and sit down.
- Innocent people were announced to have been murdered by robbers.
- She heard somebody walk up to her door.
- He is considered to be the most famous detective in the world.
- She felt her hands tremble.
- She is said to investigate this crime.
- The witneses were supposed to come on time and give evidence.
Topic: Terrorism. Grammar: Phrasal verbs.
The Definition of Terrorism
In recent years people have confronted such world-wide phenomenon as terrorism. Nowadays the term «terror» is identified with fear and threat, explosions and hijacks. The main meaning of the word «terror» is «extreme fear» and the main principle of terrorists is «Kill one, frighten ten thousand». Terrorism is an unlawful, premeditated, motivated use of threat or violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets to achieve political, economical or religious demands and aims. It creates the atmosphere of fear and panic, strong public reaction. Terrorists are minorities unable to get their way by lawful means and they try to get it by violence and intimidation. They believe that it is morally to use illegal means to promote their own purposes and they are «freedom fighters».
The Purpose of Terrorist Activities.
The basic aims of the terror organisations are to make doubts about the political system in the minds of people, and to weaken the authority of the government. On the other hand, terrorism is used as a tool by some powers to get political and economic advantages when a group of people creates an atmosphere of fear in the society taken as a target to obtain a profit. As a political tool for struggle, terror is also used for state's weakening another state. The next source of terrorist activity is the difference in ethnic structures or religious beliefs. The leaders of some ethnic groups try to clash the groups of people who have different cultural backgrounds and points of views and use the techniques of terror to destroy unity and order of the society.
Terrorist acts are criminal in nature and constitute a serious threat to individuals' lives or freedom. The struggle against international terrorism is different from any other war. Units for Combating Terrorism all over the world and Interpol (182 member countries) fight terrorist networks and all those who support their efforts to spread fear, they use every instrument of power - diplomatic, economic, law enforcement, financial, information, intelligence, and military.
The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism focuses on the following tasks:
to identify and locate terrorists and terrorist organisations («know your enemy»);
to isolate the spread of terrorism;
to destroy the terrorist organisations;
to create an international environment inhospitable to terrorists and all those who support them;
- to eliminate the capabilities for terrorists to exist and operate (leadership, control, material support and finances, communications);
- to prevent terrorists from acquiring the capability to use chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons, or high-yield explosives.
fear-страхthreat-погроза, загрозаhostage-заручникhijack ( hijacking )-захоплення автотранспорту, повітряне піратствоexplosion -вибухexplosive-вибухова речовинаpremeditated-навмиснийperpetrated-увічненийnoncombatant target-невійськовий об'єкт, мішеньminority-меншістьintimidation-залякуванняto make doubts-сумніватисяtool-інструмент, знаряддяadvantages/disadvantages-переваги/ недолікиprofit-прибуток, користь, вигодаreligious belief-релігійна віраto clash-зіштовхуватиto destroy-руйнуватиdestruction-руйнуванняstruggle/ combat-боротьбаterrorist networks-терористична мережаto spread fear-посіяти страхinhospitable-негостинний, неприйнятийcapability-можливість, здатність, здібністьto eliminate-ліквідуватиto acquire-набувати, отримувати, одержатиnuclear weapons-ядерна зброяhigh-yield -високоприбутковийexplosive-вибухова речовина
Ex.1. Read and translate the following international words:
Atmosphere, resources, reaction, technique, structure, method, morality, strategy, region, technology, brigade, sabotage, fanatic, despotism, activity, to form, to demonstrate, to co-ordinate, to manufacture, to isolate, to focus on, to operate, neutral, opposite, racial, extreme, religious, global, ethnic, lethal, financial, brutal.
Ex. 2. Choose the synonyms from the box:
to get, to receive - struggle, combat -to show, to display - fright, scare -to produce, to make - purpose, goal -to gain, to succeed - request, inquiry -
Ex. 3. Define by the suffixes or endings to what part of speech the following words belong (where it is possible). Translate the words:
identity - identify - identical - identification
injure - injured - injury - injurious
recognition - recognisable - recognise
support - supporter - supportable - supporting - supportive promote - promoter - promotion
Ex. 4. Finish the sentences according to the text:
1. Terrorism is …
2. The main meaning of the word «terror» is …
3. Terrorists are …
4. The basic aims of the terror organisations are …
5. The terrorist actions are characterised by ...
6. Units for … all over the world and … fight terrorist networks.
7. The main tasks of Interpol and units for combating terrorism are to ... .
Ex. 5. Match the English and Ukrainian equivalents:
1. to achieve an aim 2. to obtain a profit 3. to create an atmosphere of fear4. to destroy the unity of the society5. to spread panic6. to support groups7. to deploy chemical weapon8. to prevent a terrorist act9. to use explosivesa) створювати атмосферу страхуb) запобігти терористичному актуc) підтримувати групи d) застосовувати вибухові речовиниe) досягти мети отримати прибутокg) поширювати панікуh) руйнувати цілісність суспільстваi) готувати до застосування хімічну зброю
Ех. 6. Match the term and its definition:
- Terrorist a) an act of taking control of a vehicle (esp.an aircraft) in order
to force it to change the destination, to take hostages or to
steal its cargo.
- Hostage b) an object or a place at which an attack is directed.
- Target c) a large system of terrorist groups connected with one another
by common aims, rules and leadership.
4.Terrorist d) a person who uses threat or violence
network who is involved in terrorism.
5. Hijack e) a person who is kept as a captive by one or more others (who
threaten to keep, harm or kill him/her) so that other side will
do what they demand.
Ex. 7. Fill the gaps in the sentences using the words of the unit.
1. Terrorists never recognise any moral or humanistic factors and they usually choose civilians as their_________.
2. In December 1985 five _________of the Abu Nidal Group carried out the Egypt Air Flight 648 and fifty-six passengers were killed.
3. The terrorists kidnapped the children and held them as_________.
4. _________ accepted responsibility for the bomb blast which killed 21 people and wounded more 140 others.
5. The ______of Palestinian movements has an annual income of about $ 1.25 billion.
Ех. 8. Make up the composition «Terrorism as the central problem of modern world». Use the following words and word-combinations:
International terrorist groups, the use of violence, hijacking of passenger aircraft, bombings, political assassinations, kidnapping, to create public fear, to make attacks, a terrorist network, victims, to injure, to kill, to spread the sense of insecurity, to rule by terror, to commit a crime, drug trafficking, to take hostages, to achieve own aims, demands, profit; to support terrorist operations, to fight, psychological and ideological war.
Ех. 9. Complete the first part of the phrasal verbs. Use each verb only once.
- Mary and I want to (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) smoking.
- Could you (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) me up at 7 oclock.
- They must (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) or they will miss the train.
- Can you (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) at the station?
- When the teacher enters the class-room, the students have to (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) up.
- I usually have to (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) at half past six.
- Diana must (get, give, hurry, pick, stand, tidy, wake) up her room today.
Ех. 10. Complete the sentences using a suitable phrasal verb from the box. Where necessary use the Past Tense of the verb. Use it/them/me with the verb.
look up turn down wake up shave offpick up cross out knock out try on
- The radio is a bit loud. Can you … it … a bit, please?
- There was a 50 $ note lying on the pavement, so I … .
- The children are asleep. Dont … !
- If you make a mistake, just … .
- I saw a suit which I liked in the shop. So I went in and … to see if it fitted me.
- There were a few words that I didnt understand, so I … in my dictionary.
- He had a beard for a long time but he got fed up with it. So he … .
- A stone fell on my head and … I was unconscious for half an hour.
Ех. 11. Change the underlined verb with the phrasal verb from the box.
keep on find out got away bumped into
- The police followed the robbers, but they escaped.
- Im trying to discover whose car this is.
- Most of the students said they wanted to continue studying.
- I met an old friend of mine. What a surprise!
Text: Drug trafficking.Grammar: Revision .
TYPES OF DRUGS
Drugs are probably as old as mankind. There have been drugs in practically all civilizations.
A distinction must be made between legal and illegal drugs, depending on the country and culture concerned. Alcohol, for instance, while popular in most parts of the world, is prohibited in many Muslim countries.
Legal drugs in Ukraine - and most Western countries - are caffeine (coffee), nicotine (tobacco) and alcohol (beer, wine, spirits) as well as certain medical tablets which can be obtained without prescription. Certain glues and solvents are likewise misused as drugs, especially among 12 to 16-year-olds.
There are four large groups of illegal drugs, three of which are based on plants (hemp, poppy and coca), with the fourth group being synthetic drugs.
Hemp (cannabis) is the raw material for hashish and marihuana. These drugs are mainly smoked mixed with tobacco as «joints». Consumption produces, among other things, hallucinations and mental disorders, and, like alcohol, impairs fitness to drive.
The opium poppy is the base for opium and heroin. Both drugs have been used as pain killers, but they are extremely addictive.
Opium is usually smoked while heroin is injected. Many heroin addicts contract AIDS because they share syringes. Long-term heroin abuse leads to physical breakdown and, eventually, death.
Cocaine is extracted from the leaves of the coca bush and is usually snorted. After a brief moment of euphoria, cocaine users suffer, among other things, from hallucinations, panic and persecution mania, which, in turn, often produce aggressiveness.
Crack (cocaine heated together with baking powder) causes addiction right from the beginning.
There are many synthetic drugs, like LSD and ecstasy, and nobody knows what drugs chemists will come up with next. The so-called designer drugs are specially designed variations of illegal drugs. The clandestine manufacturers seek to escape the provisions of the controlled substances acts in the consumers' countries.
Drug addicts who want to get clean often suffer from severe and painful withdrawal symptoms. This is why many rehabilitation schemes are not very successful. As drugs are extremely expensive, «junkies» often turn to crime like theft and burglary to finance their habit. Female addicts frequently «earn» the necessary money through prostitution.
All drugs carry RISKS
The effects may be unexpected.
Many drugs sold on the «street» have been mixed with other substances, so users can never be sure what they are getting.
Users can become tolerant to some drugs. This means their bodies have become so used to the drug they need to take more to get the effect they want.
Users may overdose (take too much for their bodies to handle). With alcohol, heroin, gases, glues and aerosols, an overdose can prove fatal.
drugs -наркотикиfor instance -наприкладprohibited - забороненийprescription -рецептglues -клейsolvents -розчинhemp -конопляjoint - сигарета з маріхуаноюconsumption -споживанняmental disorders -психічний розладto impair fitness -порушити здатістьpoppy -опійний макaddictive -що визиває звичкуaddiction -звиканняaddicts -наркоманиsyringe - шприцabuse -зловживанняto snort -вдихатиto suffer -страждатиpersecution mania -манія переслідуванняclandestine -підпільний, нелеганийwithdrawal -symptomsабстинентний синдром
Ех. 1. Guess the meaning of the international words:
Civilization, narcotic, alcohol, popular, substance, legal, opium, synthetic, to inject, effect, dose, to concentrate, apathy, physical, rehabilitation, depression, mania, risk, tolerance, intensity, euphoria, normal, function, total, character, action, panic, medical, tablet, hallucination, aggressiveness, symptom.
Ex. 2. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:
Junkie, pain killer, Muslim countries, misuse, to snort, hallucinations and mental disorders, drug addict, the coca bush, hemp, manufacturer, the raw material, the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), synthetic drugs, to consumer, contract AIDS.
Ex. 3. Match the following adjectives with the nouns and translate the word-combinations:
Ex. 4. Write out the words and expressions with the word "drug" from the text.
Ex. 5. Match English and Ukrainian equivalents:
aggressiveness індійські конопліboredom виробникcaffeine рецептcuriosity спілкуванняmanufacturer макmental disorder агресивністьроррупсихічний розладprescriptionкофеїнsociabilityцікавістьcannabisнудьга
Ex. 6. Group the following words and word- combinations into 4 logical groups:
Panic, caffeine, ecstasy, inject, heroin, smoke, persecution mania, opium, swallow, hashish, medical tablets, LSD, snort, aggressiveness, marihuana, hallucination, nicotine, mental disorder, alcohol.
legal drugillegal drugmethod of usedrugs effect
Ex. 7. Give the English equivalents of the following words and word-combinations:
Наркотик, мак, споживач, тютюн та індійські коноплі змішані в одній цигарці, наркоман, психічний розлад, зловживати, закон про наркотичні речовини, лікарські рослини, виробник, вдихати наркотик носом, залежність від наркотиків.
Ех. 8. Translate the words and word- combinations in the box and complete the following sentences:
1. … is natural product derived from the leaves of the coca plant.
2. The world's production of … is concentrated in Peru, Colombia and Bolivia.
- The vast majority of the world's supply of ... is processed from opium poppy.
- The ... were between 20 and 30 years old and a strikingly large number of them were women.
- Cooperation between the authorities is necessary for the successful of drug abuse.
6. Many thefts, frauds and other kinds of crimes against property are committed with a view to obtaining ... to buy drugs.
Ex. 9. Answer the following questions:
- What kind of distinction should be made between legal and illegal drugs?
- What drugs are legal in most Western countries?
- What are four large groups of illegal drugs?
- What is cannabis?
- What is the base for opium and heroin?
- Why do many heroin addicts contract AIDS?
- What do many cocaine users suffer from?
- What drug causes addiction right from the beginning?
- What are the designer drugs?
- Why are many rehabilitation schemes not successful?
- Why do "junkies" often turn to crime?
Ex. 10. Read the following text and translate it into Ukrainian. Use a dictionary.
WHAT TO DO IN AN EMERGENCY
Drugs affect everyone differently. Sometimes people suffer a bad reaction. It's important to know what to do if you find somebody ill after taking drug.
Amphetamines (speed), cannabis, ecstasy, LSD and magic mushrooms can sometimes make the user feel tense and panicky. If this happens:
Calm them and be reassuring. Try not to panic. Speak in normal voice.
Explain that the feeling will pass.
Encourage them to settle in a quiet, dimly lit room.
If they start breathing very quickly, calm them down and tell them to take long, slow breath.
Heroin, tranquilizers and misuse of gases, glues and aerosols can make the user feel very drowsy. If it happens:
• Calm them and be reassuring. Speak in a low, quiet voice and try not to panic.
• Don't frighten or startle them, or let them exert themselves.
NEVER give coffee to rouse them.
If symptoms persist, place them in recovery position (on the side), so their tongue cannot fall back and prevent breathing.
• Don't hesitate to call the ambulance if they don't start to become more alert.
Ex. 11. Determine the tense forms and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:
- After college, James Albrecht applied for the job of police officer.
- The only problem was that George Presley had not served in the Greek army.
- In New York City major crimes are dealt with by special squads.
- The Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigation collates, evaluates and distributes intelligence.
- Normally WPC Atkinson drives the patrol car, but today WPC Parker is driving it.
- The enforcement of parking regulations has been taken over by the cities.
- If you pass all the tests, you will be invited for an interview and a medical check-up.
- The Federal Border Guard has been given new tasks to meet the requirements of our time.
- While John was waiting for the bus, policemen were stopping all cars travelling in the opposite direction.
- If you had failed the entrance examination, you wouldn't have been accepted.
- Police officer to the truck driver: "You've been driving for more than 12 hours without stopping."
UIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES OF GREAT BRITAIN
Most big towns in Britain have both a university and a college of higher education. There are 91 universities and 47 colleges of higher education in Britain. They offer three- and four- year degree courses.
A degree is a qualification you get from university when you pass your final exams. You are then awarded a BA (Bachelor of Arts), BSc (Bachelor of Science) or BEd (Bachelor of Education). Undergraduates students who are studying for degrees go to large formal lectures, but most of the work takes place in tutorials: lessons in groups of ten or more when students discuss their work with the lecturer.
Only 25 per cent of the student population goes on to higher education. After finishing school students take exams where they get grades from A level (the highest) to E level (the lowest). Students usually need three A levels to go to university. They apply to universities some months before they take their A levels. The students are given a personal interview and the universities decide which students they want. The place which a student is offered depends on his or her A level results. The more popular a university, the higher grades must be. Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Britain and they have the highest academic reputation.
Most of British students choose to go to university a long way from their home town. They think going to university is time to be independent and to live away from home and develop new interests.
Until 1998, British students did not have to pay to go to university. Now they must pay about £ 1,000 a year as a tuition fee. They also need money to live away from home. Many students, whose parents do not earn a lot of money, are given a grant from the local education authority. If students do not get a grant, parents are expected to pay for their children. Some students borrow money from the bank, which must be paid back after they leave university. In theory, the grant pays for rent, food, books and transport. In fact the grant is not large enough. Students often work during their holidays to earn more money. About 38 per cent of the population under 24 years of age go on higher education.
Not all students study full-time at university or college. Many people combine their studies with work. Some companies release their staff for training one or two days a week or for two months a year. Large companies often have their own in-house training schemes.
The British government is very enthusiastic about such training schemes. It wants at least half the work force to have a formal professional qualification.
THE CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE
Ukraine is situated in south-eastern Europe. It is an independent, democratic, unitary state with single citizenship. Its population is about 52 million people. Ukraine has its own territory, constitution, government and the state symbols. It has its own armed forces and maintains diplomatic relations with foreign countries.
The Constitution of Ukraine was adopted on June 28, 1996. The Constitution is the Fundamental Law of the country, it establishes the states political system, assures rights, freedoms and duties of citizens.
The Constitution states that every person has the right to free development of his or her personality, and has certain obligations before the society. Citizens have equal constitutional rights and freedoms and they are equal before the law. There are no privileges or restrictions based upon colour of skin, political and other beliefs, ethnic and social origin, property, ownership, position, language, religion.
The articles of the Constitution guarantee the rights to life, personal inviolability and the inviolability of dwelling, non-interference in private and family life, free choice of residence, work, education, housing, health protection, medical care, legal assistance, a safe and healthy environment.
Defence of the Motherland, of its independence and territorial integrity, and respect for the states symbols are the duty of citizens. Citizens of Ukraine are also obliged to perform military service. Every person shall pay taxes in the order and amount determined by law. No person may damage the environment and cultural heritage.
The Constitution defines the territorial structure of Ukraine. It consists of 24 regions and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
NATIONAL SYMBOLS OF UKRAINE THE FLAG
The Constitution states that the national symbols of Ukraine shall be the National Flag, the National Emblem, and the National Anthem.
The Ukrainian flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width. The top is blue, the bottom yellow. Blue and yellow, the colours of the sky, mountains, streams, and golden fields have symbolized Kyivan Rus long before the introduction of Christianity. With the acceptance of Christianity, blue and gold were incorporated into church symbolism. After the Mongol-Tatar invasion in the 1200s the use of blue/gold was interrupted, to be revived again in church ornaments and city crests some time later. The emblem of the city of Myrhorod, for example, was a gold trident over a blue background. Another city, Pryluky, used the head of an ox in gold over a blue background as its insignia. And in Lubny, the city emblem pictured a hand holding a golden mace over a blue background. The banners of the Cossacks (17th Century) were blue with gold stars, a gold cross, or with pictures of saints rendered in gold.
UKRAINE SMALL COAT OF ARMS
Trident (tryzub). The official coat of arms of Ukraine is a gold trident on an azure background. As a state emblem the trident dates back to Kievan Rus. When it was the coat of arms of the Riuryk dynasty. The oldest examples of the trident discovered by archaeologists on Ukrainian territory date back to the 1st century AD.
At that time the trident probably served as a symbol of power in one of the tribes that later became part of the Ukrainian people. The trident was stamped on the gold and silver coins issued by Prince Volodymyr the Great (980-1015), who perhaps inherited the symbol from his ancestors as a dynastic coat of arms and passed it on to his sons, Sviatopolk I (1015-19) and Yaroslav the Wise (1019-54).
On February 19 1992, after the restoration of Ukraines independence in 1991, the Supreme Council accepted the trident as the chief element in the state coat of arms.
THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
The United States Constitution, adopted in 1789 and amended only rarely since then, is the supreme law of the United States. It established a republic under which the individual states retain considerable sovereignty and authority. Each state, for example, has its own elected executive (governor), legislature, and court system. The federal, or national, government is one of strong, but limited, powers. It may exercise only the powers specified in the Constitution itself. All other powers are reserved by the Constitution to the states and the people. This system of divided powers between the national and state governments is known as "federalism".
The Bill of Rights is set forth as the first ten amendments to the Constitution. It guarantees fundamental rights to the people and protects them against improper acts by the government. The rights protected include such matters as free speech, freedom of assembly, freedom to seek redress of grievances, freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures, due process of law, protection against compelled self-incrimination, protection against seizure of property without just compensation, a speedy and public trial in criminal cases, trial by jury in both criminal and civil cases, and assistance of counsel in criminal prosecutions.
The Constitution established three separate branches of government Legislative (Article I), Executive (Article II), and Judicial (Article III). The three branches of the federal government operate within a constitutional system known as "checks and balances". Each branch is formally separate from the other two, and each has certain constitutional authority to check the actions of the others.
THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
OF THE US GOVERNMENT. The Capitol
The most recognized symbol of democratic government in the world, the United States Capitol has housed Congress since 1800. The Capitol is where Congress meets to write the laws of this nation, and where presidents are inaugurated and deliver their annual State of the Union messages. For nearly two centuries, the Capitol has grown along with the nation, adding new wings to accommodate the increasing number of senators and representatives as new states entered the Union. Its ceilings are decorated with historic images, and its halls arc lined with statuary and paintings representing great events and people in the nations history.
The original Capitol was designed by Dr. William Thornton, and the cornerstone was laid by President George Washington on September 18, 1793. In 1800, when the government moved from temporary quarters in Philadelphia to Washington, DC, the Capitol that awaited them was an unfinished brick and sandstone building.
By 1850, so many new states had been admitted to the Union that the House and Senate had outgrown their chambers. It was decided to enlarge the Capitol by adding grand wings to the ends of the original building.
The Rotunda is the very heart of the Capitol. Although it serves no legislative function, it is a ceremonial center where state funerals have been held for presidents from Abraham Lincoln to Lyndon Johnson, distinguished members of Congress, military heroes, and eminent citizens. Visiting heads of state have been received in the Rotunda, and memorable individuals and events celebrated.
Congress, the national legislature of the United States, is composed of two houses or chambers the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state has two Senators who are elected for six-year terms. One-third of the Senate is elected every two years. Members of the House of Representatives are elected from local districts within states. Each state receives a number of Representatives in proportion to its population. The entire House is elected every two years.
To become law, proposed legislation must be passed by both houses and approved by the President. If the President does not sign, or vetoes, a bill, it may still be enacted, but only by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress.
The Constitution did not establish a parliamentary or cabinet system of government, as in the United Kingdom and many other democracies around the world. Under the United States Constitution, the President is both the head of state and the head of the government. The President appoints a cabinet consisting of the heads of major executive departments and agencies but neither the President nor any member of the cabinet sits in the Congress. The Presidents political party, moreover, does not need to hold a majority of the seats in the Congress to stay in office. In fact, it is not unusual for one or both houses of the Congress to be controlled by the opposition party.
Each house of the Congress has committees of its members, organized by subject-matter, that draft laws, exercise general oversight over government agencies and programs, enact appropriation bills to fund government operations, and monitor the operation of federal programs. The federal courts, for example, maintain regular communications with the Judiciary Committees and the Appropriations Committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
of the us government
The President is elected every four years, and under the Constitution may serve no more than two terms in office. Once elected, the President selects a cabinet, each member of which must be confirmed by a majority vote in the Senate. Each cabinet member is the head of a department in the executive branch. The cabinet includes, for example, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Attorney General.
The President, his cabinet, and other members of the Presidents administration are responsible for operating the executive branch of the federal government and for executing and enforcing the laws. The Attorney General, who is head of the Department of Justice, is responsible for all criminal prosecutions, for representing the governments legal interests in civil cases, and for administration of the Bureau of Prisons, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Marshals Service, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and certain other law enforcement organizations. At the local level, the chief prosecutor in each of the 94 federal judicial districts is the United States attorney, who is appointed by the President and reports to the Attorney General.
The Department of Justice plays no role in administration or budgeting for the federal courts. The judiciary communicates separately and directly to the Congress on legislative and appropriations matters.
THE JUDICIAL BRANCH of the us government
The federal judiciary is a totally separate, self-governing branch of the government. The federal courts often are called the guardians of the Constitution because their rulings protect the rights and liberties guaranteed by the Constitution. Through fair and impartial judgments, they determine facts and interpret the law to resolve legal disputes.
The courts do not make the laws. That is the responsibility of the Congress. Nor do the courts have the power to enforce the laws. That is the role of the President and the many executive branch departments and agencies. But the judicial branch has the authority to interpret and decide the constitutionality of federal laws and to resolve other disputes over federal laws.
The framers of the Constitution considered an independent federal judiciary essential to ensure fairness and equal justice to all citizens of the United States. The Constitution they drafted promotes judicial independence in two principal ways. First, federal judges appointed under Article III of the Constitution can serve for life, and they can be removed from office only through impeachment and conviction by Congress of "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors". Second, the Constitution provides that the compensation of Article III federal judges "shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office", which means that neither the President nor Congress can reduce the salaries of most federal judges. These two protections help an independent judiciary to decide cases free from popular passion and political influence.
From Alfred the Great, in the ninth century, to Elizabeth II today, 56 very varied men and women have reigned as kings or queens of England. The royal line of Scotland merged with that of England only in the seventeenth century. Some of these sovereigns occupied the throne for no more than a few months or, like Henry VI and Edward IV, disputed its possession with a rival, and not all were formally crowned; others, such as Elizabeth I and Victoria, reigned in splendour for so long that they set the seal of their names on whole periods of history. Some were esteemed as saintly, some were conspicuously sinful, some were feared and strong, others were despised and weak.
The wide differences in personality of these kings and queens are matched by the variety of circumstances in which they reigned. The powers and the functions of a monarch of England have never ceased to evolve, the rules of succession have differed from one period of history to another, and the very extent of the kingdom has changed. So we must not imagine William the Conqueror wrangling with a Parliament, any more than we should imagine George III leading warriors into battle.
In fact, to go back to the beginnings of the British monarchy is to explore a landscape so different from the one in which we now live, that only the similarity of the place names allows us to assume that we are still in the same country. What we now call England was roughly carved up by immigrant Saxon war bands in the fifth and sixth centuries, to make tribal territories and principalities.
The squabbles and struggles of the Saxon principalities were overtaken in the ninth century by the onset of a new wave of invaders, the Viking marauders from Scandinavia, who began at this time to terrorise the coastal regions of all of western Europe.
In their different ways Cnut and William were both interlopers, at least by what have come to be regarded, since the eighteenth century, as the rules of royal succession. However, this fact did not invalidate their kingship in the eyes of their contemporaries. When kings had to rule as well as reign, there were always questions of suitability and acceptability, which could not always be easily settled by the accident of heredity.
The Saxons recognised certain families as royal, but kings succeeded not merely by line of descent, they had to command the support of the leading families, and their claim was strengthened if they could prove that they had been designated for the succession by their predecessors.
It is not possible to point to any one figure in the history of the English monarchy and say, simply, he or she began it all. Nevertheless, the story did receive a tremendous, even a decisive, forward impulse from Alfred of Wessex, King of the English as he styled himself on his coins, and Leader of the Christians as he was called by his devoted biographer Asser. He is the only English ruler to have been popularly accepted as Great, and his position, both in British history as a whole and in the development of the monarchy in particular, is unique.
In a society that was still rebuilding itself after the devastation of a World War, the accession of a young, beautiful Queen with a famous name fuelled high hopes of a new golden age. In the event, the second Elizabethan era can already be seen as a time of renewal. It has not been easy for Britain to accept the loss of her empire, even though this process was carried out for the most part in an atmosphere of goodwill. It has been even harder, in some ways, for Britain to adjust to the harsh realities of late twentieth-century economics. In each case the outcome has shown the strength of a national tradition of dogged pragmatism. Throughout the changes of these years, the continuity represented by the monarchy has acted as an invaluable stabilising factor, reassuring the country and binding together the Commonwealth. And The Queen herself, both personally and in her role as constitutional monarch, has not ceased to grow in the respect and affection of her people, as was plainly seen in the rejoicing that marked Her Majestys Jubilee year of 1977.
The image of royalty in Britain since the Second World War has been much enhanced by its family setting. The marriage of the young Princess Elizabeth to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, on 20 November 1947, was a dazzlingly romantic event in its time, and her husband swiftly came to occupy a distinctive and significant place in popular esteem. As royal consort the Duke of Edinburgh has shown a keen and challenging interest in many fields of national life.
THE LAW IN BRITAIN
The law and the church are powerfully interlocked with the history of Britain. Both judges and bishops sit in the House of Lords, and are honoured with ancient titles. Both are conservative and resistant to any change. They wear horse-hair wigs or nylon wigs and flowing gowns since medieval up to nowadays.
The conservatism of English lawyers is demonstrated in their strict division into solicitors and barristers found only in New Zealand, South Africa, New South Wales and Great Britain. Only solicitors are allowed to deal directly with the public. They perform all routine business, but when they pass the case to the courts they must employ a barrister to plead.
A barrister must have an educational standard and pass the legal examinations conducted by the Council of Legal Education. After that he must become a member of the Inns of Court.When he has already some practice the barrister may apply to the Lord Chancellor for a patent appointing him a Queens Counsel. This procedure is called "taking the silk". The highest judicial appointments are made from barristers, who have become Queens Council. The work of a barrister is controlled by the General Council of the Bar, but disciplinary powers are passed exclusively to the Senate of the Inns of Court.
Solicitors are examined by the Law Society (the professional organisation of solicitors) and they enter into "articles of clerkship" (that is go through the period of training) with a practising solicitor of not less than five years. The term of articles may last 3 or 5 years depending upon the educational qualifications of the student. After that an articled clerk pass the necessary examinations held by the Law Society and begins his professional career. Since that time he becomes a member of the Law Society.
Half the barristers in Britain work in one of the 4 Inns of Court: Grays Inn, Lincolns Inn, the Middle Temple and the Inner Temple. They work in groups of 6 or more in "chambers" with great stone steps and their names written in elegant 13-th century letters. The Inns are privileged and snobbish clubs which are very proud of the prestige. The oldest and the richest is Inner Temple which has produced the largest number of judges. The Middle Temple is less exclusive, across the road Lincolns Inn for Chancery lawyers and Grays Inn the newest of them, which is known for its number of provincial barristers.
The Inns like Oxford colleges have large powers: they are responsible for admission, discipline and promotion. They are a kind of medieval republican oligarchy, the last to be found in Europe. They have much land but nobody knows the real size of their wealth because they never publish the information of their accounts. The Inns are among the most absurd anachronisms in Britain.
WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN
LAW ALL ABOUT?
The purpose of international humanitarian law is to limit and prevent human suffering in times of armed conflict. The essence and core of this law is enshrined in the four Geneva Conventions and their two Additional Protocols. Today virtually all the countries in the world are party to the Geneva Conventions.
The four Geneva Conventions of 1949 are applicable to international armed conflicts. They stipulate that civilians and people who are no longer taking an active part in the hostilities, such as wounded or captured combatants, must be spared. They also set out the role the ICRC the initiator of contemporary humanitarian law plays in alleviating human suffering. In addition, Article 3 common to all four Conventions authorizes the ICRC to offer its services in the event of non-international armed conflict and accords minimum protection to the victims of such situations.
The protection provided by the Conventions applies to the following categories of persons:
wounded and sick members of the armed forces in the field;
wounded, sick, and shipwrecked members of the armed forces at sea;
prisoners of war;
civilians in times of war.
The two Additional Protocols of 1977 supplement the Conventions which aim to limit the use of violence and protect the civilian population, by strengthening the rules governing the conduct of hostilities.
Although the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols provide a comprehensive framework for international humanitarian law, there are new areas that have to be explored and developed as the nature of warfare changes. The ICRC, being the guardian of international humanitarian law, is also responsible for its development. To this end, its legal experts organize and participate in meetings and conferences aimed at improving the protection of war victims. Banning the use of certain weapons, such as anti-personnel landmines and blinding weapons, is among the issues currently being examined.
Sadly, however good the law is in theory, in practice it is often blatantly disregarded, deliberately flouted, or its very existence is unknown. Making both armed forces and civilians aware of the law is the first and essential step in the right direction.
THE RED CROSS AND THE RED CRESCENT:
EMBLEMS OF HUMANITY
The red cross and the red crescent emblems serve a specific purpose: to ensure the protection of those wounded in war and those who care for them. They are used first and foremost for the protective identification of the armed forces medical services, but also to identify people and equipment belonging to a component of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement i.e. the ICRC, the National Societies and their Federation. They stand for the Movements Fundamental Principles, particularly those of neutrality and impartiality.
In wartime, the red cross or red crescent emblem is the visible sign of protection conferred by the Geneva Conventions on people and objects authorised to display it: army medical services, including National Society staff incorporated in these services, authorized civilian medical facilities and the international organizations of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. This means that ICRC staff and its equipment may be marked with the red cross emblem for protective purposes. To ensure protection, the emblem must be large and clearly visible. Misuse of the emblem is a violation of international humanitarian law: it annihilates the very meaning of the emblem, which must at all times stand for protection and humanitarian assistance.
The emblem is also used to show that a person or object is linked to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. To avoid confusion with the emblem used as a protective device, the red cross and red crescent used for indicative purposes is smaller in size.
The red cross was the emblem adopted by the International Conference meeting in Geneva in 1863. The following year it was given official recognition in the first Geneva Convention. Later, the Ottoman Empire decided to use a red crescent instead of the red cross. Several States followed suit and in 1929 the red crescent in turn was granted official recognition.
WHO BELONGS TO THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS
AND RED CRESCENT MOVEMENT?
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the largest humanitarian network in the world, for it is present and active in almost every country. It is united and guided by the seven Fundamental Principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality. All Red Cross and Red Crescent activities have one central purpose: to prevent and alleviate human suffering, without discrimination, and to protect human dignity.
The ICRC is the Movements founding body. In addition to carrying out operational activities, it is the promoter and custodian of international humanitarian law. It is also the guardian of the Fundamental Principles. In cooperation with the Federation it organizes the Movements statutory meetings.
There are now more than 160 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies around the world. National Societies act as auxiliaries to the public authorities in their own countries and provide services ranging from disaster relief, health and social assistance to first-aid and child-care courses. In wartime their first-aid staff are incorporated into the army medical services. All National Societies must first be recognized by the ICRC, on the basis of set conditions for recognition, in order to become part of the Movement. Subsequently they may become members of the Federation, the National Societies umbrella organization.
The Federation works to inspire, encourage, facilitate and promote humanitarian activities carried out by its member National Societies. Founded in 1919, the Federation coordinates international assistance from National Societies to victims of disasters, whether natural or man-made, outside conflict areas. It encourages and promotes the establishment and development of National Societies, for instance helping them to plan and implement disaster, preparedness programmes and long-term projects designed to reduce vulnerability and contribute to sustainable development. It acts as a permanent body of liaison for the National Societies.
Besides working in their own countries, National Societies second personnel to the ICRC to help organize food transport and distributions, for instance, or care for the war-wounded and manage water and sanitation projects, Cooperation with National Societies in the field is steadily increasing; in recent years they have on occasion taken over responsibility for entire projects, leaving ICRC delegates free to attend to more specific tasks that only they can carry out, such as visits to detainees and prisoners of war. Providing food for community kitchens serving meals to displaced children and the elderly, repairing and rehabilitating wells destroyed by the fighting and delivering basic medicines to rural health centres cut off from their normal sources of supply are examples of such projects.
Solidarity within the Movement is essential. Help given by one component of the Movement to another can range from donating ambulances to helping to train first-aid volunteers, for example. Some National Societies set up their own programmes in a foreign country where needs are high and resources insufficient, for instance after severe floods or earthquakes. Such projects are carried out in cooperation with the local National Society and in coordination with the Federation.
HISTORY OF ENGLISH POLICE TRAINING
Most nineteenth-century policemen in England received such training as they got on the job. London Metropolitan Police was probably the most advanced in the instruction of recruits. But the instruction in that time lasted for only two weeks, largely concentrated on drill and sword exercise with two afternoon lectures by a superintendent, and a considerable amount of legal material to learn by rote.
Following this, the new constable patrolled with an experienced man for about a week. He was then moved to his division and sent out on his own. A section house reserved for candidates to the force was opened in 1886 with an assistant chief constable appointed as instructor.
The training lasted from three to five weeks beginning each morning with two hours drill. It was not until May 1907 that a proper training school was established for the Metropolitan Police with the opening the Peel House. By the 1920s recruits studied at Peel House for ten weeks. There continued to be drill and route learning, but there were regular lectures, instruction on first aid, self-defense, how to draft reports, and even mock accidents were staged.
After this initial training the new constable was again introduced to patrolling in his division by going out with an experienced man. On-the-job-training was much the same in provincial forces of England. Some borough forces employed local schoolmasters to give instructions on reading, writing and arithmetic.
In February 1895 the Chief Constable set an examination for those men wishing promotion to Constable of First Class. Correspondent colleges, notably the Bennet College in Sheffield and the institution established by Thomas Walton also in Sheffield, developed courses specially for policemen. The first styled itself "The Policemans University", the second "The policemans College".
The development of half a dozen more training schools lead to a greater uniformity in training, especially when the smaller forces began to take advantage of them.
However, it was not until the Second World War that police training was fully systematized across the whole country, and not until 1960s that the formal system of police cadets was established.
Each force has a police authority a kind of governing body. The police authority of a county force is known as the Standing Joint Committee and is composed of representatives of the county council and the county justices of the peace, in equal numbers. The size of the Standing Joint Committee is not laid down by statute: the justices and the county councillors are to settle the number between them. The Committee is normally re-elected every third year after a new county council has been appointed.
In the boroughs, the police authority is a committee of the borough council, known as the Watch Committee. A Watch Committee may not be composed of more than one-third of the members of the council together with the mayor who is ex officio a member. Most Watch Committees are elected annually, though there is no statutory requirement to this effect.
The police authority for the Metropolitan police district is the Secretary of State for the Home Department not the London County Council. In the City of London, which maintains its own force, the police authority is the Common Council of the City, that is the body corresponding most closely to the town council elsewhere.
Although the local police authority is responsible for the administration and maintenance of its force, the central government nevertheless plays an important part. The Home Secretary the Minister primarily concerned with the maintenance of the peace also makes regulations, with the approval of Parliament, governing the conditions of service (pay, discipline, promotion, etc.) of all police officers. And his department maintains certain common services for the benefit of all police forces in such matters as training, radio-telephony and scientific investigation.
The Home Secretary thus exercises a general controlling and coordinating authority over the police of England and Wales. The responsibility for peace and order may be said to be shared between the local police authorities and the Home Secretary. And it is the Home Secretary who is generally responsible to Parliament for the maintenance of law and order throughout the country as a whole.
THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE
The New York City Police is regarded by many as the outstanding city police organisation in the United States. Since 1901 the New York City Police have been controlled by a single police commissioner, who is a civilian appointed by the mayor of New York. The appointment is provided for in the City charter. The first deputy commissioner acts as an adviser on matters of policy and also acts for the commissioner during his absence or illness.
The New York City Police Department is headed by the Chief of Department. There are four more chiefs, among them are the Chief of Patrol, the Chief of Detectives and the Chief of Personnel.
Besides the first deputy commissioner there are several additional deputies who are responsible for various important services legal matters, management and budget, public information, trials, community affairs, internal affairs bureau, training.
The traffic problem of New York is of great importance and the Patrol and Safety Devisions are concerned with all aspects of traffic control. The Safety Division also operates an Intoxicated Drivers Testing Unit and an Accident Investigation Squad which makes a complete investigation into the causes and responsibility in every accident in which a person dies or is seriously injured and likely to die.
The Detective Division is a highly efficient organisation of world-wide repute, employing a staff of over 3,000. The members of the division are under the command of a Chief of Detectives.
Community policing consists of a partnership between the police and the law-abiding citizens of New-york, working together to create permanent solutions to problems, and thereby enhancing the quality of life in the community. The deputy commissioner who is responsible for community affairs provides city-wide staff supervision of borough community affairs service teams located within the 75 Patrol Precincts.
The New York City Police duties are thye following: the protection of lives and property of their citizens and the enforcement of the law; fighting crime both by preventing it and by pursuing violators of the law; the respect of each individuals dignity.
THE INDIVIDUAL POLICEMANS ROLE
IN CRIME PREVENTION
The policeman has an excellent opportunity as an individual to prevent crime. He is the representative of government whose work is to observe criminal conditions. The policeman has the opportunity of viewing life from both the standpoint of the criminal and the law-abiding citizen. He has a knowledge of the criminals temptations, his problems, his friends, and his environment. Therefore, he can offer advice and be an example on a man-to-man basis.
At the same time it must be recognised that special steps should be taken to prevent types of crime that terrorise the public, or disturb their sense of safety and security, such as housebreaking and robbery.
The more experience one gains in the police service, the more one is convinced of the importance of the prevention of crime. While crime detection is very necessary, and should be everywhere encouraged, we must bear in mind that the efficient policing of the country in the judgement of the public depends to a large extent on the amount of crime committed.
The first role of policemen is to set a good example. It is surprising the influence a police officer has over juveniles. Respect or lack of respect for government and law observance is largely established by the patrolmans conduct. Friendliness, interest and a good example are better.
In the prevention and detection of crime the need for inter-Force cooperation has been fully recognised by detectives throughout the country. They have decided in view of the activities of the modern criminal that they must take a wide view, and consider the whole of the Forces of the country as one unit, working on one common task.
The criminal who a few years ago felt safe from arrest on escaping a certain police boundary finds today that the arm of the law has considerably lengthened. Modern methods of commiseration are doing much towards the perfection of coordinate action over long distances.
Successful results have been obtained by cooperation with reputable members of the public.
Official acts normally tend to increase resistance to law in the criminals mind. This tendency may be overcome in the criminals mind at the time of arrest with proper attitudes and conduct by the police officer and without malice. He can aid in removing or suppressing the influences of irritating conditions in the environments that he patrols, especially those that are criminal or hazardous. He may enforce the law and at the same time gain respect and confidence of the criminal element. He can aid and support the organisations whose normal work is crime preventive in character. The individual policeman may be assigned to crime prevention as a full-time activity.
PRESERVATION OF THE PUBLIC PEACE
Preservation of the public peace is the most important duty the police perform. However, this does not mean that preservation of the peace is necessarily synonymous with all other police duties.
Police departments maintain the public peace by preventing riots, mobs and other unlawful assemblages, and by ensuring to every citizen the rights guaranteed to him in the Constitution and in the laws of his state. These are the broad, general objectives intended in the term "the preservation of the peace".
In a practical way, police officers preserve the peace by attending to the thousand and one little things that come to their attention each day. These range all the way from complaints about children, to violations of minor regulatory measures. Differences between neighbours arise, too, and it frequently takes a Solomonlike arbiter to settle the questions satisfactorily.
Not one of the average officers problems is significant in itself but, taken together, they are sometimes sufficiently provocative to cause a serious breach of the peace.
The most important work done by the police in preserving quiet and good order, however, results simply from the police being in existence. People are reluctant to tamper with the law or to take advantage of their neighbours when they know that justice will be done. It is for this reason that police departments today strive to establish the reputation of invincibility, and to instill in the potential violators mind a conviction that he cannot get away with it.
This kind of public education by the police contributes more to law observance and general maintenance of the peace than anything else that is done.
THE TRAFFIC POLICE
The men and women in Londons Traffic Patrol, numbering over 800 and have responsibility for some 3 million licensed vehicles traveling on Londons 8.600 miles of road and motorway every day. These officers have three basic objectives: the prevention of accidents; the maintenance of traffic flow and relief of congestion; and the enforcement of the law.
The control of Londons traffic is always very much in the balance. Because the roads, despite many traffic management schemes and other improvements, were not built to cope with such volumes of traffic, the situation is always critical unless action is taken immediately.
The control and regulation of traffic is now one of the three main functions of police, thus in 1955 the Central Traffic Squad was formed. This squad had its own Traffic Control Room at Wellington Arch Police Station, the smallest police station in London located in the middle of Hyde Park Corner. From this original concept the whole of the present system of traffic control in London was evolved and the squad eventually became the Traffic Control of today.
London is divided into five Areas and, for traffic policing; each is under the control of a Superintendent. There are a total of nine police garages from which the Traffic Officers, recognizable by their white caps, operate with a fully equipped fleet of white cars (usually white Rover 827i) motorcycles, and SETACs (“Specially Equipped Traffic Accidents Cars”), which are usually Land Rovers and carry all the equipment needed to deal with a major accident.
All members of Traffic Patrol are volunteers, who are fully trained police officers and have chosen to specialize in work concerning traffic. They are very carefully selected as it is essential that they have a genuine aptitude for traffic patrol duties. The aim of every Traffic Officer is to become a ”Triple Class I” this means that he or she will be a Class I Driver and Motorcyclist and will also have attended the Traffic Patrol Course, qualifying him as an Accident Investigator and Vehicle Examiner.
Two innovations have made it considerably easier to keep Londons traffic moving. In 1960 the Traffic Warden Scheme was introduced to enforce parking regulations. Since then Wardens, who are civilians, have taken on other duties previously performed by police such as point duty and school crossing patrols.
The second innovation has been the increasing use of modern technology. Emergency telephones, traffic flow sensors and television cameras, helicopters and, of course, radio, all assist not only in surveillance but alert the Police Traffic Control Centres to any incident or accident, especially on motorways. Prompt action prevents a small incident or accident becoming more serious.
In 1968 the West London Traffic Experiment was introduced. Some 71 sets of traffic signals were linked to a computer at New Scotland Yard. The scheme was developed in conjunction with the Greater London Council who was then Londons Traffic Authority.
The Traffic Control radio room is part of the central communications complex at New Scotland Yard, where it is known as “Oscar” control “Oscar” being the radio call sing identifying Traffic Patrol units. “Oscar” control is manned 24 hours a day by police officers and civilians from the communications branch, who operate three radio channels dedicated to traffic matters information relating to accidents, traffic congestion, vehicles removed by police to car pounds, vehicles clamped, availability of breakdown vehicles from private garages.
Traffic Control has direct telephone lines to the Fire and Ambulance services as well as all the nearest Police Forces. A Traffic Information Bureau is operated where information is collected on the state of traffic in the capital.
Perhaps the most famous unit of motorcyclists in London is the Special Escort Group, which can be seen on state and ceremonial occasions. They are all Class I motorcyclists and their duties mainly consist of providing escorts for visiting Heads of State and members of the Royal Family for security reasons. Heads of State and members of the Royal Family for security reasons. From this Group the members of the famous Motor Cycle Precision Team gives impressive public display of controlled riding, weaving intricate patterns, many of which have been devised by the Team. The sheer skill of these officers when executing these maneuvers on their powerful machines has been acknowledged by motorcyclists worldwide.
Accident Investigation Units operate on each traffic division. They consist of Traffic Patrol officers highly skilled in the scientific methods of reconstructing accidents, to ascertain the true cause and presenting their findings to Courts when appropriate. The police play an important role in the planning of future roads and traffic management schemes and there are officers on Areas whose job it is to liaise with Engineers in the many local authorities within the Metropolitan Police District.
THE ROLE OF THE POLICE TRAFFIC CONTROL
The role of the police traffic control may be outlined as follows:
1. Record Keeping and Data Processing. Record motor vehicle accident facts and collect and analyse data for the purpose of providing standard and adequate area-wide accident records and facts essential to planning accident prevention measures through engineering, education, enforcement and legislation.
2. Accident Investigation. Determine and report the cause, circumstances, and other facts of a traffic accident and obtain adequate evidence to secure prosecution of the violator.
Personnel must be trained for on-the-scene investigation ranging from questioning of participants and witnesses to the examination of the vehicle and other physical evidence at the accident scene. Emphasis should be on truthful reconstruction of the accident and prompt police action when violation of the law contributed to the accident. Police action at the scene directed toward the person causing the accident is highly selective and highly effective enforcement.
3. Enforcement. All police activity relating to the observation of traffic violations and the police action to be taken such as warning, reporting, summoning and arresting, includes techniques for securing voluntary compliance as open patrol in plainly marked cars, patrol in unmarked cars, and radar and other forms of speed management.
Enforcement also includes techniques necessary to secure co-operation of the courts, and to assist in prosecuting traffic offenders. It also includes active cooperation with the state agency administering driver license control in order that the unlicensed driver and the driver operating while his license is suspended will be kept off the highways.
4. Direction. Telling drivers and pedestrians how and where they may or may not move or stand at a particular place. punishment is in a county penitentiary, as distinct from a state prison, is generally a misdemeanour; where the maximum punishment is one year in a penitentiary in New York, that crime is by definition a misdemeanour. An offence punishable by imprisonment in a state prison, or capitally, is a felony.
CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DEPARTMENT
The CID was organized in 1842 when six officers were selected to form the first Detective Department, following two attempts on Queen Victorias life and an outbreak of major crime in London. Now there are about 3.500 men and women detectives working in plain clothes on Londons streets.
All of them are selected for their patience and tact, and then trained to make the best use of their aptitude for detective work.
2,000 of them work from police stations in the 75 Divisions that make up the 787 square miles police by the Met. Each Divisional CID office is run by a Detective Chief Inspector, Detective Sergeants and Detective Constables to deal with crime investigations. The Detective Chief Inspector is responsible to the Divisional Chief Superintendent on all crime matters. The Division can call on the expertise of more senior Detective Officers Detective Superintendents and Detective Chief Superintendents, who are based on each of the five Areas within the Met in cases of murder, rape and other serious crime.
Before becoming a detective each officer must have completed two years service as a uniformed constable on probation and have served on a local crime squad, which is made up of qualified CID officer and uniformed officers working in plain clothes.
The constable will then be recommended by his Divisional Superintendent as being suitable for CID work. He will go on to face a selection board made up of two senior CID officers and a senior uniformed officer.
If selected, the officer will have to carry out further study in his own time, and then attend a training course at the Detective Training School at Hendon.
1,500 officers are split into a number of branches and squads; the principle ones are:
The Major Investigation Reserve, which can be called upon to investigate murder and other serious crimes within the Metropolitan Police District and conducts enquiries both at home and abroad on behalf of the Director of Public Prosecutions or other Government bodies.
The Extradition, Illegal Immigration and Passport Squad investigate organized crime relating to the obtaining of British Passports and illegal immigration. It also deals with the extradition of fugitive offenders to Foreign and Commonwealth Countries.
The Central Cheque Squad investigates offences and collates information about organized cheque, travellers cheque and credit card frauds committed against the clearing banks and major stores within the Metropolitan Police District.
The Stolen Motor Vehicle Investigation Squad stared life as part of the Flying Squad, but became a squad in its own right in 1960. it is staffed by specialists in the examination of suspect cars. They are particularly adept in spotting cars produced by “ringers”, the thieves who “ring the changes” on cars by building them from stolen parts. The squad also specializes in the investigation of organized theft from industrial car plants.
The Serious and Organized Crime Squad was formed to deal with organized crime in London, its successes have earned the men who work for it the name of “The Gangbusters”.
The Central Robbery Squad deals with investigating major armed robberies at banks, building societies, security vehicles and similar commercial targets in the Metropolis. Sometimes these investigations involve officers traveling to other parts of the country and abroad.
The Regional Crime Squad is a national network of crime squads working under a National Coordinator and dealing with serious crime.
The No. 9 Regional Crime Squad covers London and is made up of Metropolitan Police Officers and officers from the City of London Police. The squad works closely with the Central Robbery Squad as well as with other Regional Crime Squad, using and acting on information gleaned from their own confidential sources.
Members of the Regional Crime Squad and the Central Robbery Squad often use their own cars fitted with multi-channel radios, which can be tuned to the frequencies used by police forces all over the country. Each car is also fitted with a short-wave set for car to car communication. This makes it difficult for criminals “to listen in” and get advance warning of a squads movements.
The Criminal Intelligence Branch is the branch which collects and stores information about know and important criminals their movements, habits and associates.
The branch is also responsible for supplying all the back-up services required by detectives working in the field, including the Laboratory liaison staff. It also has an equipment unit which develops and operates technical aids used by police.
The Metropolitan and City Police Company Fraud Department, more commonly know as the Fraud Squad, is staffed by officers from both forces and was formed in 1946 with the sole object of dealing with complex and protracted fraud cases.
Its investigations mainly concern limited companies, banks and businesses specializing in money investment at home and abroad and dealing in shares and securities. A sing of the times is that the Fraud Squad now has the national responsibility of keeping records on corruption in public life.
Fraud Squad investigations can take detectives to different parts of the word and at any one time the squad is concerned with several hundred criminal allegations involving in excess of £250 million.
The Special Branch was formed in 1883 under the title of Special Irish Branch. Its activities were concerned with investigating Fenian bombings and the Fenians themselves, who were Irish terrorists operating in London and the provinces. The word “Irish” was dropped from the name three years later and the Special Branchs scope was widened to include providing personal protection and involvement in matters of national security.
The Anti-Terrorist Branch was formed because of terrorist activities in London. Detectives from the branch are involved in the dangerous work of investigating acts of terrorism and politically motivated crime in the Metropolitan area. The Anti-Terrorist Branch was born from the Bomb Squad, itself formed out of necessity in 1971 when London became a target for the anarchist bombers of the Angry Brigade.
Attached to this Branch are the civilian explosives officers, who have the dangerous task of dealing with suspect devices.
The International Criminal Police Organization, better known simply as Interpol, has the role of communication between the police forces of over 100 countries and the Interpol office at the Yard is equipped with the most modern radio equipment. The Metropolitan Police has men permanently stationed at Interpols Headquarters in Paris.
No modern CID can work without the help of the scientists. The Metropolitan Police Forensic Science Laboratory provides the detectives of the force with the expertise of highly qualified scientists working in the Laboratorys five basic areas Biology, Chemistry, Photography, Documents and Firearms.
The Laboratory also analyses specimens sent in from the Home Counties police forces and can provide the conclusive piece of evidence to secure a conviction. Conversely, it can often eliminate a suspect from a case and establish his or her innocence.
TYPES OF LEGAL PROFESSION
Who is who in the law? If you are prosecuted for a crime in Britain, you may meet the following people during your process through the courts:
Magistrates. Magistrates are unpaid judges, usually chosen from well-respected people in the local community. They are guided on points of law by an official, the clerk. There are magistrates courts in most towns.
Solicitors. After the accused person has been arrested, the first person he or she needs to see is a solicitor. Solicitors are qualified lawyers who advise the accused and help prepare the defence case. The solicitor may represent the accused in court. A person who is too poor to afford a solicitor will usually get Legal Aid financial help from the state.
Barristers. In more serious cases it is usual for the solicitor to hire a barrister to defend the accused. The barrister is trained in the law and in the skills required to argue a case in court. The barrister for the defence will be confronted by his or her opposite number, the prosecuting barrister who represents the state.
Jurors. A jury consists of twelve men and women from the local community. They sit in the Crown Court, with a judge, and listen to witnesses for the defence and prosecution before deciding whether the accused is guilty or innocent. In Britain the person is innocent unless found guilty: the prosecution has the burden of establishing guilt.
Judges. Judges are trained lawyers, nearly always ex barristers, who sit in the Crown Court (and appeal courts)/ the judge rules on points of law, and makes sure that the trial is conducted properly. He or she does not decide on the guilt or innocence of the accused that is the jurys job. However, if the jury find the accused guilty, then the judge will pass sentence.
Coroners. Coroners have medical or legal training (or both) and inquire into violent or unnatural deaths.
Clerks of the court. Clerks look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom.
Sentencing. The most common sentences are fines, prison and probation. Probation is used often with more minor offences. A person on probation must report to a local police station at regular intervals, which restricts his or her movement. A sentence of community service means that the convicted person has to spend several hours a week doing useful work in his locality.
A few more facts. Children under 10 cannot be charged with a criminal offence.
Offenders between 10 and 17 are tried by special juvenile courts.
The death penalty technically still exists in Britain for some rare offences, such as treason, but is no longer used.
The punishment for murder is a life sentence. This can be much less than a lifetime in prison, depending on factors such as good behaviour.
The most common punishment for crimes 80 per cent of the total is a fine.
THE COMMON LAW SYSTEM
The American judicial process is based largely on the English common law system. Common law is law that is developed and interpreted by judges, rather than a fixed body of legal rules such as the codes of a civil law system. A basic feature of the common law is the doctrine of "precedent", under which judges use the legal principles established in earlier cases to decide new cases that have similar facts and raise similar legal issues. Judges of the lower courts are required to follow the decisions of the higher courts within their jurisdiction.
Congress in this century has passed elaborately detailed statutes, sometimes referred to as "codes", that establish fundamental legal principles in particular fields of law. These bodies of statutory law include, for example, the Bankruptcy Code, the Internal Revenue Code, the Social Security Act, the Securities Act, and the Securities Exchange Act. In addition, the individual states have adopted various comprehensive codes, such as the Uniform Commercial Code. These statutes are often further developed and interpreted by regulations adopted by federal and state administrative agencies.
Despite the growth of statutory law over the last century, however, American statutes and regulations, even when called "codes", continue to be interpreted by the courts in common-law, or "precedent" fashion. Thus, for example, a bankruptcy court applying the Bankruptcy Code will consult relevant case law to determine whether there are Supreme Court or court of appeals rulings applying the particular code section in similar factual situations. Lawyers who argue the question before the court will not only dispute whether the situation is governed by a particular section of the statute, but whether it should be governed by an earlier court ruling in a purportedly similar case.
All judges in the United States, regardless of the level of the court in which they sit, exercise the power of judicial review. While judges will normally presume the laws or actions that they are reviewing to be valid, they will invalidate statutes, regulations, or executive actions that they find to be clearly inconsistent with the Constitution. They are required to abide by a hierarchy of the laws that places the United States Constitution above all other laws. Judges will therefore not only abide by precedent in interpreting statutes, regulations, and actions by members of the executive branch, but will seek to interpret them consistently with the Constitution.
A federal civil case involves a legal dispute between two or more parties. To begin a civil lawsuit in a federal court, the plaintiff files a document called a "complaint" with the court and "serves" a copy of the complaint on the defendant. The complaint is a short statement that describes the plaintiffs injury or other legal claim, explains how the defendant caused the injury, and asks the court to order relief. A plaintiff may seek money to compensate for the injury or ask the court to order the defendant to stop the conduct that is causing the harm. The court may also order other types of relief, such as a declaration of the legal rights of the plaintiff in a particular situation.
To prepare a case for trial, the litigants may conduct "discovery". In discovery, the litigants must provide information to each other about the subject matter of the case, such as the identity of witnesses, the expected testimony of the witnesses, and copies of any documents related to the case. The purpose of discovery is to prepare for a trial, and to prevent surprise at trial, by requiring % the litigants to assemble their evidence and prepare to call witnesses, before the trial begins. The scope of discovery is broad, and discovery is conducted by the parties themselves under the procedural rules of the courts. Judges are involved to the extent necessary to oversee the process; and to resolve disputes brought to their attention by the parties.
One common method of discovery is the "deposition". In a deposition, a witness is required to answer under oath questions about the case asked by the lawyers in the presence of a court reporter. A second method of discovery is the "interrogatory", which is a written question from one party to another that must be answered under oath. A third method allows a party to require another party to produce documents and other materials within its custody or control, or to enter on another partys property for inspection or other purposes relating to the litigation.
Each side may file requests, or "motions", with the court seeking rulings on various legal issues. Some motions ask for a ruling that determines whether the case may proceed as a matter of law. A "motion to dismiss", for example, may argue that the plaintiff has not stated a claim under which relief may be granted under the law, or that the court does not have jurisdiction over the parties or the claim at issue, and therefore lacks the power to adjudicate. A "motion for summary judgment" argues that there are no disputed factual issues for a jury to resolve, and urges the judge to decide the case based solely on the legal issues. Other motions focus on the discovery process, addressing disputes over what information is subject to the discovery rules, protecting the private or privileged nature of certain information, or urging the court to preserve evidence for use at trial. Other motions address procedural issues such as the proper venue for the case, the schedule for discovery or trial, or the procedures to be followed at trial.
To avoid the expense and delay of having a trial, judges encourage the litigants to reach an agreement resolving their dispute. Most judges conduct settlement conferences with the parties, and they may refer a case to a trained mediator or arbitrator to facilitate an agreement. As a result, litigants often decide to resolve a civil lawsuit with an agreement known as a "settlement". Most civil cases are terminated by settlement or dismissal without a trial.
If a case is not settled, the court will proceed to a trial. In a wide variety of civil cases, either side is entitled under the Constitution to request a jury trial. If the parties waive their right to a jury, the case will be heard by a judge without a jury.
If a trial is conducted, witnesses testify under oath and respond to questions asked by the attorneys. Testimony is conducted under the supervision of the judge, and it must comply with formal rules of evidence designed to assure fairness, reliability, and the accuracy of testimony and documents. At the conclusion of the evidence, each side gives a closing argument. If a case is tried before a jury, the judge will instruct the jury on what the law is and will tell the jury what facts and issues it must resolve. If the case is tried by a judge without a jury, the judge will decide both the facts and the law in the case. In a civil case, the burden of proof lies with the plaintiff, who must convince the jury (or the judge if there is no jury) by a "preponderance of the evidence", i.e., that it is more likely than not that the defendant is legally responsible for any harm that the plaintiff has suffered.
The judicial process in a criminal case differs from a civil case in several important ways. The parties in the case are the United States attorney (the prosecutor representing the Department of Justice) and the defendant or defendants. Criminal investigations are conducted by the Department of Justice and other law enforcement agencies, which are both part of the executive branch. The court plays no role in criminal investigations. Its role in the criminal justice process is to apply the law and make legal and factual decisions.
Three main levels of federal criminal offenses have been defined by Congress. Felony offenses are the most serious crimes and may be punished by more than one year in prison. Misdemeanor offenses are less serious and may be punished by up to one year in prison. The least serious offenses, known as petty offenses, may be punished by up to six months imprisonment. Most petty offenses are addressed through fines rather than a prison sentence.
After a person is arrested, a pretrial services officer or probation officer of the court immediately interviews the defendant and conducts an investigation of the defendants background. The information obtained by the pretrial services officer or probation officer will be used to help a judge decide whether to release the defendant into the community before trial and whether to impose conditions of release.
At an initial appearance, a judge (normally a magistrate judge) advises the defendant of the charges filed, considers whether the defendant should be held in custody until trial, and determines whether there is "probable cause" to believe that an offense has been committed and the defendant has committed it. Defendants who are unable to hire their own attorney are advised of their right to a court-appointed attorney. Each district court, by statute, is required to have in place a plan for providing competent attorneys to represent defendants who cannot afford their own attorneys. The court may appoint a federal public defender (a full-time federal official appointed by the court of appeals), a community public defender (a member of a community-based legal aid organization funded by a grant from the judiciary), or a private attorney who has agreed to accept such appointments from the court. In all these types of appointments, the attorney who represents the defendant is paid by the court from funds appropriated to the judiciary by Congress. Defendants released into the community before trial may be required to obey certain restrictions, such as home confinement or drug testing, and to make periodic reports to a pretrial services officer to ensure appearance at trial.
Under the Constitution, a felony criminal case may only proceed beyond the initial stages if the defendant is indicted by a grand jury. The grand jury reviews evidence presented to it by the United States attorney and decides whether there is sufficient evidence to require a defendant to stand trial.
The defendant enters a plea to the charges brought by the United States attorney at a hearing known as an arraignment. Most defendants more than 90% plead guilty rather than go to trial. If a defendant pleads guilty in return for the government agreeing to drop certain charges or to recommend a less severe sentence, the agreement often is called a "plea bargain". If the defendant pleads guilty, the judge may impose a sentence at that time, but more commonly will schedule a hearing to determine the sentence at a later date. If the defendant pleads not guilty, the judge will proceed to schedule a trial.
Criminal cases include a limited amount of pretrial discovery proceedings similar to those in civil cases, with substantial restrictions to protect the identity of government informants and to prevent intimidation of witnesses. The attorneys also may file motions, which are requests for rulings by the court before the trial. For example, defense attorneys often file a motion to suppress evidence, which asks the court to exclude from the trial evidence that the defendant believes was obtained by the government in violation of the defendants constitutional rights.
In a criminal trial, the burden of proof is on the government. Defendants do not have to prove their innocence. Instead, the government must provide evidence to convince the jury of the defendants guilt. The standard of proof in a criminal trial is much higher than in a civil case. It must be beyond a reasonable doubt, which means the evidence must be so strong that there is no reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the crime. The judge instructs the jury on the law and the decisions that the jury must make.
If a defendant is found not guilty, the defendant is released and the government may not appeal. Nor can the person be charged again with the same crime in a federal court. The Constitution prohibits "double jeopardy", or being tried twice for the same offense.
In determining the defendants sentence, the judge must follow special federal sentencing guidelines issued by the United States Sentencing Commission, an organization within the judicial branch. The sentencing guidelines are designed to:
• incorporate the purposes of sentencing (i.e., just punishment, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation);
• provide certainty and fairness in sentencing by avoiding unwarranted disparity among offenders with similar characteristics convicted of similar criminal conduct, while permitting some judicial flexibility to take into account relevant aggravating and mitigating factors;
• reflect, to the extent practicable, advancement in the knowledge of human behavior as it relates to the criminal justice process.
The sentencing guidelines provide federal judges with consistent sentencing ranges that take into account both the seriousness of the criminal conduct and the defendants criminal record. Based on the severity of the offense, the guidelines assign most federal crimes to one of 43 "offense levels". Each offender is also assigned to one of six "criminal history categories" based upon the extent and recency of his or her past misconduct. The point at which the offense level and criminal history category intersect on the Commissions sentencing table determines an offenders guideline range. In order to provide flexibility, the top of each guideline range exceeds the bottom by six months or 25 percent (whichever is greater).
Ordinarily, the judge must choose a sentence from within the guideline range unless the court identifies a factor that the Sentencing Commission failed to consider that should result in a different sentence. However, the judge must in all cases provide the reasons for the sentence. Sentences outside the guideline range are subject to review by the courts of appeals for an abuse of discretion, and all sentences can be reviewed for incorrect application of the relevant guidelines or law.
In most felony cases the judge waits for the results of a presentence investigation report, prepared by the courts probation office, before imposing sentence. The presentence investigation report summarizes for the court the background information needed to determine the appropriate sentence, including a thorough exploration of the circumstances of the offense and the defendants criminal background and characteristics. The report applies the sentencing guidelines to the individual defendant and the crimes for which he or she has been found guilty. During sentencing, the court may consider not only the evidence produced at trial, but all relevant information that may be provided by the pretrial services officer, the United States attorney, and the defense attorney. In unusual circumstances, the court may depart from the sentence calculated according to the sentencing guidelines.
A sentence may include time in prison, a fine to be paid to the government, community service, and restitution to be paid to crime victims. If the convicted defendant is released, the courts probation officers assist the court in enforcing any conditions that are imposed as part of a criminal sentence. The supervision of offenders also may involve services such as substance abuse testing and treatment programs, job counseling, and alternative detention options.
Perhaps the most important way individual citizens become involved in the federal judicial process is by serving as jurors. There are two types of juries serving distinct functions in the federal trial courts: trial juries (also known as petit juries), and grand juries.
A civil trial jury typically consists of 6 to 12 persons. In a civil case, the role of the jury is to listen to the evidence presented at a trial, to decide whether the defendant injured the plaintiff or otherwise failed to fulfill a legal duty to the plaintiff, and to determine what the compensation or penalty should be. A criminal trial jury is usually made up of 12 members. Criminal juries decide whether the defendant committed the crime as charged. The sentence usually is set by a judge. Verdicts in both civil and criminal cases must be unanimous, although the parties in a civil case may agree to a non-unanimous verdict. A jurys deliberations are conducted in private, out of sight and hearing of the judge, litigants, witnesses, and others in the courtroom.
A grand jury, which normally consists of 16 to 23 members, has a more specialized function. The United States attorney, the prosecutor in federal criminal cases, presents evidence to the grand jury for them to determine whether there is "probable cause" to believe that an individual has committed a crime and should be put on trial. If the grand jury decides there is enough evidence, it will issue an indictment against the defendant. Grand jury proceedings are not open for public observation.
Potential jurors are selected from any source that will yield a representative sample of the population at large. Most often jurors are chosen from a jury pool generated by random selection of citizens names from lists of registered voters, or combined lists of voters and people with drivers licenses, in the judicial district. The potential jurors complete questionnaires to help determine whether they are qualified to serve on a jury. After reviewing the questionnaires, the court randomly selects individuals to be summoned to appear for jury duty. These selection methods help ensure that jurors represent a cross section of the community, without regard to race, gender, national origin, age or political affiliation. Jurors receive modest compensation and expenses from the court for their service.
Being summoned for jury service does not guarantee that an individual actually will serve on a jury. When a jury is needed for a trial, the group of qualified jurors is taken to the courtroom where the trial will take place. The judge and the attorneys then ask the potential jurors questions to determine their suitability to serve on the jury, a process called voir dire. The purpose of voir dire is to exclude from the jury people who may not be able to decide the case fairly. Members of the panel who know any person involved in the case, who have information about the case, or who may have strong prejudices about the people or issues involved in the case, typically will be excused by the judge. The attorneys also may exclude a certain number of jurors without giving a reason.
THE APPEALS PROCESS
The losing party in a decision by a trial court in the federal system is entitled as a matter of right to appeal the decision to a federal court of appeals. Similarly, a litigant who is not satisfied with a decision made by a federal administrative agency in the executive branch usually may file a petition for review of the agency decision by a court of appeals. Judicial review in cases involving certain federal agencies or programs for example, disputes over Social Security benefits may be obtained first in a district court rather than directly to a court of appeals.
In a civil case either side may appeal the verdict. In a criminal case, the defendant may appeal a guilty verdict, but the government may not appeal if a defendant is found not guilty. Either side in a criminal case may appeal with respect to the sentence that a judge imposes after a guilty verdict.
In most bankruptcy courts, an appeal of a ruling by a bankruptcy judge may be taken to the district court. In several circuits, a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel consisting of three bankruptcy judges has been established to hear appeals directly from the bankruptcy courts. In either situation, the party that loses in the initial bankruptcy appeal may then appeal further to the court of appeals. Most appeals from decisions of magistrate judges are taken to a district judge. But when a magistrate judge tries a case on consent of the parties, an appeal may be taken directly to the court of appeals.
A litigant who files an appeal, known as an "appellant", must show that the trial court or administrative agency made a legal error that affected the decision in the case. The court of appeals makes its decision based on the record of the case established by the trial court or agency. It does not receive additional evidence or hear witnesses. The court of appeals also may review the factual findings of the trial court or agency, but typically may only overturn a decision on factual grounds if the findings were "clearly erroneous". The appellate court may not hear new evidence, but may "remand" the case to the trial court for that purpose.
Appeals are decided by panels of three judges working together. The appellant presents legal arguments to the panel, in writing, in a document called a "brief". In the brief, the appellant tries to persuade the judges that the trial court made an error, and that its decision should be reversed. On the other hand, the party defending against the appeal, known as the "appellee", tries in its brief to show why the trial court decision was correct, or why any error made by the trial court was not significant enough to affect the outcome of the case.
Although some cases are decided on the basis of the litigants briefs through short written decisions by the court, many cases are selected for an "oral argument" before the court. Oral argument in the court of appeals is a structured discussion between the appellate lawyers and the panel of judges focusing on the legal principles in dispute. Each side is given a short time usually about 15 minutes to present arguments to the court.
The court will usually state the reasons for its decision in a written opinion. A judge on the panel who disagrees with the majority opinion may write a separate dissenting opinion. The dissenting opinion may help the analysis of the issues if the case is reviewed at a higher level.
The court of appeals decision usually will be the final word in the case, unless it sends the case back to the trial court for additional proceedings, the parties ask the United States Supreme Court to review the case. In some cases the decision of the three-judge panel of the court may be reviewed en banc, that is, by a larger group of judges (usually all) of the court of appeals for the circuit.
A litigant who loses in a federal court of appeals, or in the highest court of a state court system, may petition the United States Supreme Court to review the case. The Supreme Court, however, does not have to grant review, except in a very small number of cases governed by special statutes. In a given year, the Court will typically receive about 8,000 petitions for certiorari, and it will agree to hear only about 100 cases.
The Supreme Court typically will agree to hear a case only when it involves an unusually important legal principle, or when two or more federal appellate courts have interpreted a law differently. There are also a small number of special circumstances in which the Supreme Court is required by law to hear a case or accept an appeal directly from a federal trial court. When the Supreme Court hears a case, the parties are required to file written briefs and the Court may hear oral argument. Additionally, other parties with significant interests in the legal issues raised by a case may ask permission to file briefs as friends of the court ("amicus curiae"). The executive branch, acting through the Solicitor General, will often file such briefs, which may help to define the issues and otherwise affect the outcome of a case.
The Supreme Court, like the lower courts, usually explains the reasons for its decision on a case in a written opinion. Supreme Court opinions are precedent for all other courts in the United States. As with the courts of appeals, justices who disagree with the majority opinion may write dissenting opinions. In some cases, justices who agree with the result in a case but not in the majoritys reasoning will file concurring opinions.
Crime is a very complex issue and often difficult to understand. It easy to understand a criminal fact profit; a man wants something, so he takes it. The real question is, why did one man steal and not the other? Why do some people in a society commit: crimes and not others? What makes a criminal? Was it the way they were raised, or was it predestined by birth? There are many theories that offer explanations of criminal behavior. First we must define what a law is and from where laws originate.
Law may be defined as а legal written prohibition of some act or utterance or a legal written requirement that some act or utterance be performed. The goal of the law is to regulate people so that they can live in the society without chaos and under the best possible circumstances.
Although social groups vary in the degree of tolerance, they demand conformity to some norms. In the absence of such demands, groups would not exist because of resulting anarchy. The mechanisms used to demand conformity to the norms (rules/laws) occur in the following manner:
- Positive sanctions: medal, prizes, merits, money, etc.
- Negative sanctions: punishments (fines, demerits, imprisonment).
We can say that some behavior is criminal only because it is defined as criminal by the government, even though the behavior is not harmful to the society in general, but is viewed by the majority as unacceptable or bad behaviour.
Crime may be defined as an act committed in violation of a public law forbidding or commanding it. Society outlaws certain acts for a number of reasons, to protect life and property, protect individual freedoms, preserve the system of government, maintain the morality of the community.
Criminal behavior may be defined as the actions or in actions of individual or a group which are harmful to law. Criminal behavior generally requires deliberate criminal intention.
Abnormal behavior is not necessarily criminal, however, criminal behavior is always outside the range of socially accepted behavior.
Criminal behavior reasoning
There are as many reasons for criminal behavior as there are people. Scientists have been trying to answer the question of why people become criminals for over 2,000 years. We will look at seven of the major theories which have been developed to explain why people become criminals. It is easy to see that the reasons for criminal behavior are very complex.
Each society determines what behavior will not be allowed. Laws are made to control the behavior of members of that society and the police are hired to enforce those laws. An act is a crime because the law says that the act is a crime. A person who breaks societys laws is labeled a criminal and punished as such.
Laws are made because the people in power need to restrict the acts of the members of society. Criminal behavior theories are often used by lawmakers consciously or subconsciously as a model to reduce crime. Many of our ideas about crime and punishment result from these theories. By understanding criminal behavior, police officers can better understand the criminal justice system.
Seven theories of possible causes of criminal behavior include:
The spiritualism theory which stressed the conflict between good and evil and believed that devil forced the individual to commit the crime.
The classical school theory which was established by an Italian mathematician and economist Marchese de Beccaria, who believed in "Free Will", i.e. an individual knew what he wanted to do and his behavior was guided by hedonism, pleasure or pain principle.
The conflict theory which focus attention on struggles between individuals and groups. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels saw the problem of crime in economics and believed that capitalism caused crimes.
The labeling theory which says that the state defines what behavior is against the law and offenders are labeled as criminals by the criminal justice system. It results for them in: loss of social status, loss of respect, difficulty to get good employment. In other words labeling and treating lawbreakers as criminals create the very behavior the state is trying to prevent.
The control theory which implies that social order is maintained because parents, schools, teachers, churches, and other social authorities teach conformity to the children. However conform cannot be taken for granted and nonconformity, such as crime, is to be expected when the social controls are not effective.
The genetic theory which believes that individuals chromosomes may predestine him to criminal behavior. Some men are born with an extra "Y" chromosome which makes them more likely to be convicted of crimes.
Mental ilness theory stating that some forms of mental ilnesses may contribute to criminal behavior, among which: pyromania, kleptomania, sociopath (drug and alcohol abusers, pathological liars, serial killers etc).
Criminal proceedings begin with bringing the charge. The charge must set forth the time, date and place of the alleged criminal act as well as the nature of the charge. Crimes of a serious nature, such as murder or treason, may be charged, by indictment only.
When a criminal action is instituted, the clerk of the court issues a warrant for the arrest of the person charged. A person who is arrested must be brought before a magistrate or justice of the peace with the least possible delay. Many jurisdictions permit law enforcement officials to hold a person without a formal charge up to 24 hours for purposes of investigation. The defendant formally charged with a crime is entitled to an attorney at all times.
If the individual charged with a crime requests a preliminary hearing before a magistrate, the court will set a hearing within a reasonably short time. At the hearing the state must present sufficient evidence to convince the magistrate there is reason to believe the defendant has committed the crime with which he is charged. The defendant must be present at this hearing, but he may or may not present evidence on his own behalf.
If the magistrate believes the evidence is sufficient, he will order the defendant bound over the trial in the proper court. On the other hand, the magistrate may dismiss the charge and order the defendant released if he concludes the state has failed to produce sufficient evidence in the preliminary hearing.
In most instances a criminal case is placed on the courts calendar for arraignment. On the date fixed, the accused appears, the indictment is read to him, his rights are explained by the judge, and he is asked whether he pleads guilty or not guilty to the charge. If he pleads not guilty, his case will be set later for trial; if he pleads guilty, it ordinarily will be set later for sentencing. In cases of minor offences, sentences may be imposed immediately. But in some states, plea and arraignment are separate proceedings, held on different days.
Very careful preparation on the part of the prosecution and the defence precedes the trial. The defence attorney may file a demurrer or motion for dismissal. In preparing for trial, attorneys for both sides will interview prospective witnesses, secure expert evidence, and gather testimony concerning ballistics, chemical tests and other similar data.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE FEDERAL COURTS
With certain notable exceptions, the federal courts have jurisdiction to hear a broad variety of cases. The same federal judges handle both civil and criminal cases, public law and private law disputes, cases involving individuals and cases involving corporations and government entities, appeals from administrative agency decisions, and law and equity matters. There are no separate constitutional courts, because all federal courts and judges may decide issues regarding the constitutionality of federal laws and other governmental actions that arise in the cases they hear
The United States district courts are the principal trial courts in the federal court system. The district courts have jurisdiction to hear nearly all categories of federal cases. There are 94 federal judicial districts, including one or more in each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the overseas territories.
Each federal judicial district includes a United States bankruptcy court operating as a unit of the district court. The bankruptcy court has nationwide jurisdiction over almost all matters involving insolvency cases except criminal issues. Once a case is filed in a bankruptcy court, related matters pending in other federal and state courts can be removed to the bankruptcy court. The bankruptcy courts are administratively managed by the bankruptcy judges.
Two special trial courts within the federal judicial branch have nationwide jurisdiction over certain types of cases. The Court of International Trade addresses cases involving international trade and customs issues. The United States Court of Federal Claims has jurisdiction over disputes involving federal contracts, the taking of private property by the federal government, and a variety of other monetary claims against the United States.
Trial court proceedings are conducted by a single judge, sitting alone or with a jury of citizens as finders of fact. The Constitution provides for a right to trial by a jury in many categories of cases, including: (1) all serious criminal prosecutions; (2) those civil cases in which the right to a jury trial applied under English law at the time of American independence; and (3) cases in which the United States Congress has expressly provided for the right to trial by jury.
The 94 judicial districts are organized into 12 regional circuits, each of which has a United States court of appeals. A court of appeals hears appeals from the district courts located within its circuit, as well as appeals from certain federal administrative agencies. In addition, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit has nationwide jurisdiction to hear appeals in specialized cases, such as those involving patent laws and cases decided by the Court of International Trade and the Court of Federal Claims. There is a right of appeal in every federal case in which a district court enters a final judgment.
The courts of appeals typically sit in panels of three judges. They are not courts of cassation, and they may review a case only if one or more parties files a timely appeal from the decision of a lower court or administrative agency. When an appeal is filed, a court of appeals reviews the decision and record of proceedings in the lower court or administrative agency. The court of appeals does not hear additional evidence, and generally must accept the factual findings of the trial judge. If additional fact-finding is necessary, the court of appeals may remand the case to the trial court or administrative agency. Remand is unnecessary in most cases, however, and the court of appeals either affirms or reverses the lower court or agency decision in a written order or written opinion.
In cases of unusual importance, a court of appeals may sit en bane that is, with all the appellate judges in the circuit present to review the decisions of a three-judge panel. The full court may affirm or reverse the panel decision.
The United States Supreme Court
The United States Supreme Court is the highest court in the federal judiciary. It consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices. The court always sits en bane, with all nine justices hearing and deciding all cases together. The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is almost completely discretionary, and, to be exercised, requires the agreement of at least four justices to hear a case. (In a small number of special cases, such as boundary disputes between the states, the Supreme Court acts either as the court of first instance or exercises mandatory appellate review). As a general rule, the Court only agrees to decide cases where there is a split of opinion among the courts of appeals or where there is an important constitutional question or issue of federal law that needs to be clarified.
UNITED STATES FEDERAL JUDGES
Appointment of judges
Justices of the Supreme Court, judges of the courts of appeals and the district courts, and judges of the Court of International Trade, are appointed under Article III of the Constitution. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the United States and must be confirmed by a majority vote of the Senate. Article III judges are appointed for life, and they can only be removed by the Congress through the impeachment process specified in the Constitution. The judiciary plays no role in the nomination or confirmation process.
The primary criterion for appointment to a federal judgeship is a persons total career and academic achievements. No examinations are administered to judicial candidates. Rather, a person seeking a judgeship is required to complete a lengthy set of forms that set forth in detail his or her personal qualifications and career accomplishments, including such matters as academic background, job experiences, public writings, intellectual pursuits, legal cases handled, and outside activities. Candidates also are subject to extensive interviews, background investigations, and follow-up questioning.
Politics is an important factor in the appointment of Article III judges. Candidates are normally selected by the President from a list of candidates provided by the Senators or other office holders from the Presidents own party within the state in which the appointment is to be made. In addition, the Presidents nominee must appear in person at a hearing before the Judiciary Committee of the Senate, and the Senate must vote to confirm each judge. Article III judges are usually nominated by the President from among the ranks of prominent practicing lawyers, lower federal court judges, state court judges, or law professors who reside within the district or circuit where the court sits.
Each federal judge is appointed to fill a specific, authorized judgeship in a specific district or circuit. Judges have no authority to hear cases in other courts unless they are formally designated to do so. Because of heavy caseloads in certain districts, judges from other courts are often asked to hear cases in these districts.
Other federal judges
Bankruptcy judges and magistrate judges are judicial officers of the district courts, but they are not Article III judges. They are not appointed under a political process, and the President and Senate play no role in their selection. Rather, they are appointed by the courts of appeals and the district courts, respectively, with the assistance of merit selection panels composed of local lawyers and other citizens.
Bankruptcy judges are appointed by the judges of the courts of appeals for 14-year terms. Magistrate judges are appointed by the judges of the district court for eight-year terms. Before reappointing a bankruptcy judge or a magistrate judge to an additional term, the appointing court must publish a public notice seeking comments on the incumbents performance and convene a merit panel to recommend to the court whether the incumbent should be reappointed.
Judges of the Court of Federal Claims are appointed for terms of 15 years by the President, subject to confirmation by a majority of the Senate.
State judges handle most cases in the United States, but they are not part of the federal court system. Rather, they serve in the state court systems established by state governments. Like federal judges, state judges are required to support the federal Constitution and may invalidate state laws that they find inconsistent with the Constitution. State judges are selected in several ways, according to state constitutions and statutes. Most are either elected by the public in general elections or are appointed by the governor of the state for an original term and may be retained for additional terms by popular vote in a general election.
PREPARATION FOR TRIAL
Very careful preparation on the part of the state and the defense precedes the trial. However, the defense may first enter a motion challenging the jurisdiction of the court over the particular offense involved, or over the particular defendant. The defense attorney also may file a demurrer, or motion for dismissal. In preparing for trial, attorneys for both sides will interview prospective witnesses, and if deemed necessary, secure expert evidence, and gather testimony concerning ballistics, chemical tests, casts, and other similar data.
tried before a jury, the judge rules upon points of law dealing with trial procedure, presentation of the evidence and the law of the case. If the case is tried before the judge alone, he will determine the facts in addition to performing the aforementioned duties.
The court clerk is an officer of the court, also either elected or appointed, who at the beginning of the trial, upon the judges instruction, gives the entire panel of prospective jurors (veniremen) on oath. By this oath the venireman promises that if called he will truly answer any questions touching upon his qualifications to sit as a juror in the case. Any venireman who is disqualified by law, or has a valid reason to be excused under the law, ordinarily is excused by the judge at this time. A person may be disqualified from jury duty because he is not a resident voter or householder, because of age, hearing defects, or because he has served recently on a jury. Then the court clerk will draw the names of the additional, veniremen from a box, and they will take seats in the jury-box. After twelve veniremen have been approved as jurors by the judge and the attorneys, the court clerk will administer an oath to the persons so chosen "to well and truly try the cause".
The bailiff is an officer of the court whose duties are to keep order in the courtroom, to call the witnesses, and to take charge of the jury, as instructed by the court, at such times as the jury may not be in the courtroom, and particularly when, having received the case, the jury is deliberating upon its decision. It is the duty of the bailiff to see that no one talks with or attempts to influence the jurors in any manner whatsoever.
The court reporter has the duty of recording all of the proceedings in the courtroom, including testimony of the witnesses, objections made to evidence by the attorneys and the rulings of the court thereon, and listing and marking for identification any exhibits offered or introduced into evidence. In some states, the clerk of the court has charge of exhibits.
The attorneys are officers of the court whose duties are to represent their respective clients and present the evidence on their behalf, to the end that the jury or the judge may reach a just verdict or decision.
The role of the attorney is sometimes misunderstood, particularly in criminal proceedings. The present system of jurisprudence presumes every defendant to be innocent until other training in the institution or medical treatment will substantially enhance his capacity to lead a law-abiding life when released at a later date.
Beyond these grounds of decision, the Code puts forward a set of considerations that a board should take into account, measuring them against the criteria, in determining whether the prisoner should be released at that time. These guides are somewhat similar to the variables that have been included in various parole prediction tables, though their focus is more largely upon the prisoners response to the institutional treatment program, his parole plan, and his attitude rather than merely upon the background factors associated with personal adjustment. Attention is directed toward the prisoners relative readiness at the time of eligibility, as compared with some later time, and toward relevant considerations involving the community and the offenders adjustment there, rather than toward the absolute probabilities of parole violation. These are the matters the Code proposed that parole agencies should take into account in weighing the criteria noted above:
1. The prisoners personality, including his maturity, stability, sense of responsibility and any apparent development in his personality which may promote or hinder his conformity to law.
2. The adequacy of the prisoners parole plan.
3. The prisoners ability and readiness to assume obligations and undertake responsibilities.
4. The prisoners intelligence and training.
5. The prisoners family status and whether he has relatives who display an interest in him, or whether he has other close and constructive associations in the community.
6. The prisoners employment history, his occupational skills, and the stability of his past employment.
7. The type of residence, neighborhood or community in which the prisoner plans to live.
8. The prisoners past use of narcotics, or past habitual and excessive use of alcohol.
9. The prisoners mental of physical make-up, including any disability or handicaps which may affect his conformity to law.
10. The prisoners prior criminal record, including the nature and circumstances, recency and frequency of previous offenses.
11. The prisoners attitude toward law and authority.
12. The prisoners conduct in the institution, including particularly whether hehas taken advantage of the opportunities for constructive activity afforded by the institutional program, whether he has been punished for misconduct within six months prior to his hearing or reconsideration for parole release, whether he has forfeited any reductions of term during his period of imprisonment, and whether such reductions have been restored at the time of hearing or reconsideration.
13. The prisoners conduct and attitude during any previous experience of probation or parole and the recency of such experience.CRIMINAL TRIAL
The judge is the officer of the court who is either elected or appointed to preside over the court. If the case is to be tried before a jury, the judge rules upon points of law dealing with trial procedure, presentation of the evidence, and the law of the case. The attorneys are officers of the court whose duties are to represent their respective clients and present the evidence on their behalf so that the jury or the judge may reach a just verdict or decision.
The present system of jurisprudence presumes every defendant to be innocent until proved guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Every defendant is entitled to be represented by legal counsel, regardless of the unpopularity of his case. This is a constitutional safeguard. In most cases a jury of twelve is required in either civil or criminal proceedings.
After selecting the jury the attorney for the state may make an opening statement for the purpose of advising the jury what he intends to prove in the case. Then the state will begin the presentation of evidence with their witnesses. A witness may testify to a matter of fact. He cannot testify to hearsay, that is, what someone else has told him. An attorney may not ask leading questions of his own witness. A leading question is one which suggests the answer desired.
When the states attorney has finished his direct examination of the witness, the defendants attorney may then cross-examine the witness upon any matter about which the witness has been questioned. The defence attorney may choose to present no evidence, or he may present certain evidence but not place the defendant upon the stand.
At the conclusion of the defendants case the attorney for the state and the defendants attorney will present closing arguments to summarise and comment on the evidence. Then the judge reads the instructions to the jury. The instructions cover the law as applicable to the case. The jury is taken to the jury room by the bailiff to deliberate upon its decision. In a criminal case the decision of the jury must be unanimous.
Upon reaching a verdict, the jury returns to the courtroom with the bailiff. When the verdict is read and accepted by the court, the jury is dismissed and the trial is concluded. If the defendant is convicted the judge will impose sentence. In most states and in the federal courts the function of imposing sentence is exclusively that of the judge.
PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE
Criminal trials differ from civil proceedings in one very important respect. Since the outcome of a criminal trial may result in the defendants loss of liberty or even life, the courts evolved a rule which casts upon the prosecution a heavy burden of proof. No rule of Criminal Law is of more importance than that which requires the prosecution to prove the accuseds guilt and not for the latter to establish his innocence; he is presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. Secondly, they must satisfy the jury of his guilt beyond reasonable doubt. In civil cases where a plaintiff sues a defendant, he who shows that on a balance of probabilities the evidence is in his favour wins the day. In criminal cases, however, the Crown cannot succeed on a mere balance of probabilities. If there is any reasonable doubt whether the accused is guilty, he must be acquitted. An acquittal therefore either means that the jury believe the accused and are satisfied of his innocence, or that while not satisfied that lie is innocent, they do not feel sure of his guilt. In England there is no middle verdict such as the Scottish verdict of "not proven" to cover this sort of situation; "not guilty" is the only alternative to a conviction.
The heavier burden of proof required in criminal trials can also be seen to operate in the rules which provide that in certain cases corroboration is necessary. In some instances the rule is one of law and the absence of corroboration is a bar to conviction. For example, the unsworn evidence of a child must be corroborated. A jury cannot convict on such evidence alone, for the law does not consider it sufficiently reliable to warrant a conviction. In a charge of perjury the jury may not by law convict the accused on the uncorroborated evidence of one witness alone. The falsity of the defendant must present sufficient evidence to convince the magistrate there is reason to believe the defendant has committed the crime with which he is charged. The defendant must be present at this hearing, but he may or may not present evidence on his own behalf.
If the magistrate believes the evidence justifies it, he will order the defendant bound over for trial in the proper court i.e., placed under bond for appearance at trial, or held in jail if the charge involved is not a bailable offense, or if the defendant is unable to post bond. On the other hand, the magistrate may dismiss the charge and order the defendant released if he concludes the state has failed to produce sufficient evidence in the preliminary hearing.
In most instances a criminal case is placed on the courts calendar for arraignment. On the date fixed, the accused appears, the indictment or information is read to him, his rights are explained by the judge, and he is asked whether he pleads guilty or not guilty to the charge. If he pleads not guilty, his case will be set later for trial; if he pleads guilty, it ordinarily will be set later for sentencing. In cases of minor offenses, sentences may be imposed immediately. But in some states, arraignment and plea are separate proceedings, held on different days.
THE PROBLEM OF PUNISHMENT
Compared with other aspects of the Criminal Law, the question of punishment is one of peculiar difficulty. For the lawyer it is a question which presents special problems for a variety of reasons. In the first place, although the task of imposing penalties is that of a subsection of the legal profession, the punishment of a criminal is a combined operation of Parliament, the courts, and the administration. The range of penalties which may be imposed is in most cases set by the legislature, which fixes the maximum sentences for different offences. In exceptional cases there may be a fixed or fixed minimum penalty. For the vast majority of offences, however, only the maximum penalty is prescribed by law, so that the court is left free to select in each actual case the appropriate sentence. After the court has selected what sentence seems suitable, the carrying out of this sentence falls to the lot of those who administer the penal system: prison governors and prison officers, those who are in charge of borstal and other detention institutions, and probation officers, all of whom work under the aegis of the Home Office. Consequently, the part played by the courts is only one part of the whole operation of punishing the offender.
One result of this is that once sentence has been passed the courts are no longer concerned with the offenders fate; their task is concluded. This means that the effect of the sentence can be seen less by the courts themselves than by those whose function it is to see that the sentence is carried out and by those who study the social effect of punishment. For tins reason those who actually pass sentence on the offender must to some extent work in the dark, unless they are willing to accept the guidance of those who study the effects of punishment.
Another difficulty confronting the lawyer in this field is that the problem of selecting the appropriate sentence is not one which can be solved by normal legal techniques. Purely legal problems he must tackle by threading his way through statutes, reported cases, and so forth in order to discover the legal rules relevant to his problem. The meaning of these rules must be established, and the rules must be applied to the facts of the problem in hand.
The punishment of criminal and political offenders by confining them in prisons is a modern practice, but prisons as places of detention are common to most societies throughout history.
The use of prisons, not as a means of punishment in themselves, but as a way of ensuring safe custody, was established in Roman Law by Justinian in the fifth century, BC. The typical Roman prison was an underground cellar to which access was made from a small grating covering the top. An example of this kind of prisons still exists in Rome.
Imprisonment as a form of punishment was used in a few cases in Saxon England. The laws stipulated at that time that a person convicted of murder should be thrust into prison for one hundred and twenty days before he might be claimed by his kinsmen. A penalty of imprisonment for perjury in a Grand Assize was introduced by Henry II, and Henry III instituted a punishment of one years imprisonment for infringement of the forest law. In the last half of the thirteenth century Edward I used imprisonment extensively, but mainly to induce confession or to ensure the payment of fines.
In the middle of the eighteenth century most county authorities were responsible for the prisons in their capital towns, but almost as many were in private hands. No questions were asked when a prisoner died. Indeed, for many of those who escaped capital punishment, death might have seemed preferable to the utter misery of mind and body which constituted existence in prison.
Attempts to improve this state of affairs were not unknown before Howard came on the scene. But John Howards influence on the design and administration of prisons is quite unrivalled, and his proposals greatly influenced the way in which the large walled prisons of nineteenth century England were administered and designed.
Millbank, one of the most famous of the old London prisons, was the only national penitentiary to be erected under the provisions of the so-called "Hard Labour Act" passed in 1779. But five years before building work began at Millbank, in 1806, another prison was being erected: Dartmoor. This prison was far better in design than any county gaol or House of correction in England.
The Act of 1823, introducing the classification system at Millbank, was the first statute effecting a general reform of prisons to be enacted by Parliament. Now for the first time Justices were ordered to supply the Home Secretary with quarterly reports "upon every department of their prison administration".
By the Prisons Act of 1877 the Home Secretary was given full ministerial responsibility for everything concerning the English prisons.
THE PRESENT ENGLISH STRUCTURE
There are three main divisions: the field-supervision agency (the term embraces the function of after-care as well as probation), the juvenile training institution, and the adult prison. Though generally a division is maintained everywhere between the adult and the juvenile institution, this division is exceptional in the field-supervision agencies.
The English correctional apparatus is a system heavily engaged in keeping up with the demands made on it, not by a largely indifferent society, but rather by the volume of offenders. The stabilised apparatus of the years before World War II has had to accommodate change in deference to the members of its clients and in the light of staff initiative.
For adult offenders, the process began with diversification of service. Prisons of containment need only the modest specialisation required by the essentials of control. Before World War II, prisons for adults could be largely divided between the local establishments for short-term commitments and the central prisons, such as Dartmoor and Wakefield, for those serving long sentences. The innovations since the Criminal Justice Act of 1948 provided for four types of prisons to which inmates might be assigned from the local prisons which still form the substructure of the system. These are:
Open prisons. Adopted from American practice, these rural centres for the training of adults draw on the availability of country mansions with large estates attached. All classes of offenders except those serving the longest and the shortest terms are eligible.
Regional training prisons. Offenders serving first terms or considered to have good potential for training are assigned to these establishments, usually with sentences of less than four years but more than six months. Institutions like Wakefield and Maidstone are included under this heading, and a heavy emphasis on vocational training and remedial education has characterised their programs.
Central prisons. In these establishments are concentrated offenders serving long terms. Central prisons vary from grim fortresses like Dartmoor to Eastchurch, an open prison established in Kent. Two concepts of social control are represented in the central prisons of England.
Conventional long terms awarded to especially dangerous offenders on a generally retributive basis are served at prisons like Wakefield, Dartmoor or Wormwood Scrubs. But England also has a special system for the control of the persistent recidivist in which prevention rather than retribution is the purpose of the sentence.
Corrective training prisons. A special feature of the Criminal Justice Act of 1948 was the provision of corrective training sentences for young recidivists. Intended for recidivists ranging in age from 21 to 30, the central notion of the law was to provide remedial education and vocational training to young men whose legitimate opportunity was hindered by lack of employable skills.
TYPES OF THE US CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Today the typical state prison in the United States is a walled fortress of stone and steel. Within are cell houses, administrative offices, schools, chapels, factories, workshops, a dining hall, an auditorium, a hospital, a recreation yard, and sometimes a gymnasium. Outside are the main administrative offices, houses for the warden and his principal assistants and their families, and sometimes a prison farm. The normal capacity of the state prison may range from a few hundred to thousands. Many institutions have a capacity of 1,000 to 3,000. The Michigan State Prison at Jackson, which is the largest prison in the United States, has a normal capacity of 6,000. Most of the state prisons are built along the lines of the original Auburn plan with interior cell blocks. The cells are small, the average being about five feet wide, eight feet long, and eight feet high. They are usually equipped with an iron bed, bedding, a locker, a small table, a chair, an electric light, a toilet, and a wash bowl.
The typical mens reformatory looks very much like a state prison. Although usually the reformatory is smaller, its facilities and equipment are the same as those of the prison. Womens prisons and reformatories, however, are quite different. In general, their buildings are attractive and well kept, having individual bedrooms and pleasant living and dining rooms. Some of the newer correctional institutions for women are built on the cottage plan. Even when women are confined in a section of the mens prison, their quarters are more attractive than those of other prisoners in the institution. Prison farms and camps have dormitories and farm buildings, often surrounded by a barbed wire fence. Road camps may have either permanent buildings or portable structures, and these, too, may be enclosed by a fence.
(INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICE ORGANISATION)
The international criminal is by no means a new type of wrongdoer; he came into being with the invention of frontiers. What is relatively new is the speed and facility with which the international criminal may now travel from one country to another. Moreover, political changes in Europe and elsewhere have resulted in extensive migrations and mixing of peoples, which favour international crime.
What is an "international criminal"? The definition of this type of wrongdoer is not based on any legal concept since there is in law no such thing as international crime. The term is simply one of practical convenience. For example, a man who kills a woman in Paris and then takes refuge in, say, Belgium, thereby becomes an "international criminal".
Interpol became necessary mainly because of the need both for a united front for the combating of international crime and for exchange of ideas and methods between the police forces of the world.
In 1914, for the first time a number of police officials, magistrates and jurists met to establish the basis of international police cooperation. However, several months later the First World War broke out.
During the second criminal police congress, in Vienna in 1923 the President of Police of that city once again voiced the idea of establishing international police cooperation. A scheme was approved by 130 delegates and an International Criminal Police Commission with headquarters in Vienna came into being. It worked satisfactorily until the beginning of the Second World War.
In 1946, the old members of the ICPC which had been disrupted by the war, met in Brussels to revive the idea of international police cooperation.
Meeting again in Vienna, in 1956, bv which time there were fifty-five member countries, the organisation decided to adopt a new constitution. It comprised fifty articles. Under it the International Criminal Police Commission was renamed the "International Criminal Police Organisation Interpol".
The general aims of Interpol are defined in article two of the Constitution as being: to ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the spirit of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights", to establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes.
The combating of international crime is divided into three distinct but complementary activities: the exchange of police information; the identification of wanted or suspected individuals; the arrest of those who are wanted on a warrant issued by the judicial authorities.
The Federal Judicial Center, an organization within the judicial branch, is the principal research and training resource for federal judges. It conducts a variety of educational programs for judges on substantive legal topics, the art of judging, and case management. In addition to attending an orientation training program shortly after they are first appointed, all judges are invited periodically by the Center to attend workshops that focus on new legislation, developments in case law, and specific judicial skills. The Center has also developed a number of special focus programs, often in conjunction with law schools, that address specific areas of the law in depth, such as intellectual property or the use of scientific evidence. In addition to live seminars and workshops, the Center produces a wide variety of videotapes, audiotapes, manuals, and other publications to assist judges in performing their duties.
The Administrative Office conducts training programs for judges on the use of computers, and on such administrative matters as pay and benefits, hiring staff, judicial branch organization and governance, judicial ethics, and personal security. The Administrative Office also offers special orientation programs on management and operational topics for new chief judges of district courts, courts of appeals, and bankruptcy courts.
The Federal Judicial Center, the Administrative Office, and the United States Sentencing Commission jointly operate a television network that broadcasts daily education and information programs for judges and court staff. In addition, several individual courts conduct in-house orientation and mentoring programs for new judges, as well as round-table discussions or other substantive programs for all judges.
COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT
THE FEDERAL JUDICIAL PROCESS
How is a civil case filed? Is there a charge?
A civil action is begun by the filing of a complaint. Parties beginning a civil action in a district court are required to pay a filing fee set by statute. A plaintiff who is unable to pay the fee may file a request to proceed in forma pauperis. If the request is granted by the court, the fees are waived. Filing fees and other service fees constitute only a small percentage of the federal judiciarys budget. Most fees charged by the courts are deposited into the general treasury of the United States. Congress, however, has authorized the courts to retain certain fees, such as those charged for providing electronic access to court records.
How is a criminal case filed?
Individuals may not file criminal charges in federal courts. A criminal proceeding may only be initiated by the government, usually through the U.S. attorneys office in coordination with a law enforcement agency. A magistrate judge or other judge may order the arrest of an accused person upon the filing of a complaint and accompanying affidavits sworn by the United States attorney or law enforcement agents that set forth sufficient facts to establish "probable cause" that a federal offense has been committed and that the accused has committed it. A felony case, however, may not proceed beyond the initial stages unless a federal grand jury indicts the defendant.
How does one find a lawyer?
Local bar associations usually offer lawyer referral services, often without charge. The clerks office in each district court is usually able to help find a referral service. But personnel in the clerks office and other federal court employees are prohibited from providing legal advice to individual litigants.
Defendants in criminal proceedings have a constitutional right to a lawyer, and they are entitled to have counsel appointed at government expense if they are financially unable to obtain adequate representation by private counsel. The Criminal Justice Act requires a court determination that a person is financially eligible for court appointed counsel.
Although parties normally have the right to be represented by a lawyer of their choice in civil cases, there is no general right to free legal assistance in civil proceedings. Some litigants obtain free or low-cost representation through local bar association referrals, lawyers acting in recognition of their professional responsibility to provide some representation pro bono publico, or through legal services organizations. Litigants in civil cases may also proceed pro se; that is, they may represent themselves without the assistance of a lawyer.
Are litigants who do not speak English entitled to a court-appointed interpreter?
A certified interpreter is appointed and paid for by the government for any criminal defendant who needs one, and for any defendant in a civil case in which the government is the plaintiff.
How are judges assigned to specific cases?
Judge assignment methods vary, but almost all courts use a blind random drawing under which each judge in a court receives roughly an equal caseload.
What is a U.S. Magistrate Judge?
Magistrate judges are judicial officers appointed by the district court to serve for eight-year terms. Their duties fall into four general categories:
(1) conducting most of the initial proceedings in criminal cases (including search and arrest warrants, detention hearings, probable cause hearings, and appointment of attorneys); (2) trial of most criminal misdemeanor cases; (3) conductinga wide variety of other proceedings referred to them by district judges (including deciding motions, reviewing petitions filed by prisoners, and conducting pretrial and settlement conferences); and (4) trial of civil cases, if the parties consent.
How does one check on the status of a case?
The clerks office responds without charge to most inquiries on the status of a case. A fee may be charged, however, to conduct certain searches and retrieve some types of information, and to make copies of court documents. Most federal courts have automated systems that allow for the search and retrieval of case-related information at the public counters in the courthouse, and electronically from other locations. In many bankruptcy and appellate courts, telephone information systems enable callers to obtain case information by touch-tone phone. Court dockets and opinions may also be available on the Internet. The federal judiciarys Internet homepage, www.uscourts.gov, includes links to individual court websites, as well as a directory of court electronic public access services.
How quickly does a court reach a decision in a particular case?
All cases are handled as expeditiously as possible. The Speedy Trial Act of 1974 establishes special time requirements for the prosecution and disposition of criminal cases in district courts. As a result, courts must give the scheduling of criminal cases a higher priority than civil cases. The Act normally allows 70 days from a defendants arrest to the beginning of the trial.
There is no similar law governing civil trial scheduling, but on average the courts are able to resolve most civil cases in less than a year.
From the History of Terrorism
The roots of terrorism are in the activities of racial and religious fanatics in the 1930s. Many terrorist movements arose in the 1960s as a part of the world-wide student protest against US participation in the Vietnam War. They started with non-lethal activities - demonstrations, occasional arsons or sabotage. Later terrorist tactics were frequently employed and «improved» by racist groups as the Ku Klux Klan and religious and nationalist groups like the Hezbollah ( «the army of God» ). the Palestine Liberation Front, Red Brigades in Italy, Irish Republican Army, etc. The bloodiest operations have been carried out by Arab and Palestinian terrorists since the 1970s: the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics in 1972, more than 60 bombings and hijacks. The hostages, victims and their targets for extortion were US and European citizens.
Present Day of Terrorism
Today's terrorist activity is different from that of the past. Modern technology, advanced telecommunications and new Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) have changed the nature of terrorism. Nowadays terrorist organizations have a flexible, transnational structure. They work together in funding, sharing intelligence, training, planning, and executing attacks. Terrorist groups in one country or region can draw strength and support from groups in other countries or regions. As the аl Qaida network demonstrates, this multinational enterprise has its; branches in more than 60 countries. Its global activities are co-ordinated through the use of personal couriers and communication technologies - cellular and satellite phones, e-mail, internet chat rooms, videotape.; Members of terrorist groups travel from continent to continent with the ease of a vacationer or business traveller. They pay their way with funds raised through drug trafficking, credit card fraud, extortion, and money; from covert supporters. They use charitable organisations and nongovernmental organisations for funding and recruitment. Money for their operations is transferred through numerous banks, money exchanges. The terrorist organisation's structure, membership, resources (safe houses, training grounds, reliable communication and financial networks) and security determine its capabilities and reach.
As we know, a terrorist act can include two, three or more traditional crimes: bombing, murder, kidnapping, taking a hostage, extortion and hijacking, etc. These crimes are usually committed by well-armed and prepared groups. The usual weapons of terrorists from the 1960s to the 1980s were guns, knives, poison gas and car bombs. The ease of intercontinental transportation enables modern terrorist organisations to more easily acquire, manufacture, and deploy chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapon, or high-yield explosives. While new instruments of terror such as cyber attacks are on the rise, explosives and bioterrorism ( e.g. the Aum Shinrikyo's efforts to deploy biological weapons and the lethal sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway in 1995, the contaminated letters in the USA in 2001) have become the urgent problem for the international community.
TYPES OF DRUGS
Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant, grows wild throughout most of the tropic and temperate regions of the world. It is a single species. This plant has long been cultivated for the tough fiber of the stem, the seed used in feed mixtures, and the oil as an ingredient of paint, as well as for its biologically active substances, most highly concentrated in the leaves and resinous flowering tops. The plant material has been used as a drug for centuries. Cannabis products are usually smoked in the form of loosely rolled cigarettes "joints". They may be used alone or in combination with other substances. They may also be administered orally, but are reported to be about three times more potent when smoked. The effects are felt within minutes, reach their peak in 10 to 30 minutes, and may linger for 2 or 3 hours.
The term marihuana is used to refer to the cannabis plant and to any part or extract of it that produces somatic or psychic changes in humans. A tobacco-like substance produced by drying the leaves and flowering tops of the plant, marihuana varies significantly in its potency, depending on the source and selectivity of plant materials used.
The Middle East is the main source of hashish. It consists of the drug-rich resinous secretions of the cannabis plant, which are collected, dried, and then compressed into a variety of forms, such as balls, cakes, or cookie-like sheets.
The name is used by illicit drug users and dealers but is a misnomer in suggesting any resemblance to hashish other than its objective of further concentration. Hashish oil is produced by a process of repeated extraction of cannabis plant materials to yield a dark viscous liquid. In terms of its psychoactive effect, a drop or two of this liquid on a cigarette is equal to a single "joint" of marijuana.
LSD (LSD-25, lysergide)
LSD is an abbreviation of the German expression for lysergic acid diethylamide. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Its psychotomimetic effects were discovered in 1943 when a chemist accidentally took some LSD. As he began to experience the effects now known as a "trip," he was aware of vertigo and an intensification of light. Closing his eyes, he saw a stream of fantastic images of extraordinary vividness accompanied by a kaleidoscopic play of colors. This condition lasted for about two hours.
LSD is usually sold in the form of tablets, thin squares of gelatin ("window panes"), or impregnated paper ("blotter acid"). The average effective oral dose is from 30 to 50 micrograms, but the amount per dosage unit varies greatly. The effects of higher doses persist for 10 to 12 hours. Tolerance develops rapidly.
First synthesized from morphine in 1874, heroin was not extensively used in medicine until the beginning of this century.
Pure heroin is a white powder with a bitter taste. Illicit heroin may vary in both form and color. Most illicit heroin is a powder which may vary in color from white to dark brown because of impurities left from the manufacturing process or the presence of additives, such as food coloring, cocoa, or brown sugar. Pure heroin is rarely sold on the street. A "bag"-slang for a single dosage unit of heroin - may weigh about 100 mg usually containing about five percent heroin.
The most potent stimulant of natural origin, cocaine is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). Pure cocaine, the principal psychoactive ingredient, was first isolated in the 1880 s. It was used as an anesthetic in eye surgery for which no previously known drug had been suitable.
Illicit cocaine is usually distributed as a white crystalline powder, often diluted by a variety of other ingredients, the most common of which are sugars such as lactose, inositol, mannitol, and local anesthetics such as lidocaine. The frequent adulteration is to increase volume and thus to multiply profits.
The drug is most commonly administered by being "snorted" through the nasal passages. Symptoms of repeated use in this manner may resemble the congested nose of a common cold. The intensity of the psychological effects of cocaine, as with many psychoactive drugs, depends on the rate of entry into the blood. Intravenous injection or smoking produces an almost immediate intense experience. Cocaine hydrochloride, the usual form in which cocaine is sold, while soluble in water and sometimes injected, is fairly insensive to heat.
"Crack", or cocaine base in the form of chips, chunks or "rocks", is usually vaporized in a pipe or smoked with plant material in a cigarette or a "joint".
One of the most popular of synthetic drugs today is perhaps ecstasy. At first it was considered to be harmless but later on it proved to be extremely harmful for health. It is not completely removed from the body. The expressive word « ecstasy» only designates a whole group of narcotics from the category of amphetamines. They are strong psycho -stimulants. Ecstasy is comparatively cheap which makes it even more dangerous.
PEYOTE AND MESCALINE
The primary active ingredient of the peyote cactus is the hallucinogen mescaline. It is derived from the fleshy parts or buttons of this plant, which has been employed by Indians in northern Mexico from the earliest recorded time as a part of traditional religious rites. The Native American Church, which uses peyote in religious ceremonies, has been exempted from certain provisions of the CSA. Peyote, or mescal buttons, and mescaline should not be confused with mescal, the colorless Mexican liquor distilled from the leaves of maguey plants. Usually ground into a powder, peyote is taken orally Mescaline can also be produced synthetically. A dose of 350 to 500 mg of mescaline produces illusions and hallucinations lasting from 5 to 12 hours.
PSILOCYBIN AND PSILOCYN
Like the peyote cactus, Psilocybe mushrooms have been used for centuries in traditional Indian rites. When they are eaten, these "sacred" or "magic" mushrooms affect mood and perception in a manner similar to mescaline and LSD. Their active ingredients, psilocybin and psilocyn, are chemically related to LSD. They can now be made synthetically, but much of what is sold under these names on the illicit market consists of other chemical compounds.
ІМЕННИК ( The Noun)
УТВОРЕННЯ МНОЖИНИ ІМЕННИКІВ
(The plural form)
Іменники в англійській мові поділяються на обчислювані (countable nouns) і не обчислювані (uncountable nouns). Обчислювані іменники означають предмети, які можна полічити: chair - стілець; engineer - інженер; question - запитання. Необчислювані іменники це назви речовин і багатьох абстрактних понять, які не піддаються лічбі: water - вода; milk - молоко; freedom - свобода; friendship - дружба та ін.
Обчислювані іменникі вживаються в однині (the singular) і множині (the plural). На письмі більшість іменників мають у множині закінчення s. Закінчення -еs додається, якщо іменник в однині закінчується на -s, -ss, -x, -ch, -sh.
lamp- lampsbus- busesfriend- friendsclass- classestext- textsfox- foxestable- tablesdish- dishesactor- actorsbranch- branchestie- tiesmatch- matches
Правила читання закінчення -(e)s:
Якщо іменник закінчується на -f або -fe, у множині f змінюється на v з доданням закінчення es:
leaf leaves shelf shelves knife knives wife wives.
man men woman women fish fish
foot feet tooth teeth sheep sheep
child children ox oxen deer deer
goose geese mouse mice louse lice
(the possessive case)
В англійській мові іменник має два відмінка:
загальний відмінок (the Common Case) та присвійний відмінок (the Possessive Case).
Присвійний відмінок однини утворюється додаванням до іменника апострофа і закінчення "s", наприклад:
student studentsfriend friendsboy boysjudge judges
Якщо іменник у множині закінчується на "s", то в присвійному відмінку множини до нього додається лише апостроф:
students studentsfriends friendsboys boysjudges judges
Якщо іменник у множині не має закінчення -s, то в присвійному відмінку до нього додається і апостроф, і буква "s":
that womans children those womens childrenthe childs parents the childrens parents
Іменник у присвійному відмінку, як правило, стоїть перед іншим іменником і є означенням до нього. Українською мовою він перекладається родовим відмінком іменника або присвійним прикметником:
My friends brother is an officer. His sons room is small.
У присвійному відмінку вживаються в основному іменникі, що означають назви істот:
The girls dress is beautiful. The cats eyes are green.
Крім назв істот, у присвійному відмінку вживаються:
1. Іменники, що позначають час і відстань, міри ваги:
а months leave, an hours work, ten minutes walk, а years absence, todays newspaper, yesterdays meeting, tomorrows lecture;
а miles distance, two kilometres way, а tons load.
2. назви країн, міст, місяців, небесних тіл, збірні іменники:
world, country, earth, nature, sun, water, ship;
the worlds famous writer, the countrys political system, the earths resources, Britains economy, Frances policy.
Іменники у формі присвійного відмінку можуть використовуватися без наступного іменника, що означає місцезнаходження. У цьому разі присвійний відмінок має локальне значення:
at the bakersat the chemistsat the hairdressersThey were married at St. Pauls.
По свому значенню займенники розділяються на 7 разрядів.
ЧислооднинаОсобаНазивнийОбєктний1-еI (я)me (мене, мені)2-еyou (ти)you (тебе, тобі)3-еhe (він)she (вона)It (він, вона,воно)him (його, йому)her (її, їй)it (його, йому, її, їй)множина1-еwe (ми)us (нас, нам)2-еyou (ви)you (вас, вам)3-еthey (вони)them (їх, їм)
Особові займенникиПрисвійні займенники1 форма2 формаОднинаI Я my мій, моя, моє, моїmine мій, моя, моє, моїheвінhisйогоhisйогоsheвонаherїїhersїїitвоноitsйого, їїitsйого, їїМножинаWe миourнаш, наша, наше, нашіOursнаш, наша, наше, нашіyouвиyourваш, ваша, ваше, вашіyoursваш, ваша, ваше, вашіTheyвониtheirїхtheirsїх
(Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns)
ОсобаОднинаМножина1-еmyself себя, самourselves себя, самі2-еyourselfсебя, сам(а), саміyourselvesсебя, самі3-еhimselfherselfitselfсебя, самсебя, самасебя, сам, сама, самоthemselvesсебя, самі
Примітка: Ці займенники утворюються додаванням закінчення -self (в однині) і selves (у множині) до присвійних займенників my, our, your, особових займенників у обєктному відмінку him, her, it, them.
ОднинаМножинаthisцей, цяthese [ði:z]ціthatтой, таthose [ðouz]ті
До них відносяться займенники who хто (обєктний відмінок whom кого, кому), what що, який, whose чий, which який, котрий. Ці займенники мають значення та функції як питальних займенників (Interrogative Pronouns), так і відносних займенників (Relative Pronouns).
Сюди ж відноситься займенник that котрый.
У якості відносних займенників who, whom, whose, what, which є союзними словами, які служитимуть для приєднанняя придаткових речень до головних.
До неозначених займенників належать some, any, no, every (а також складні займенники, у склад яких вони входять у поєднанні зі словами body, one та thing), much, many, few, little, one, none, all, both, each, either, neither, other (another).
СТУПЕНІ ПОРІВНЯННЯ ПРИКМЕТНИКІВ
(THE DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES)
Прикметники в англійській мові мають три ступені порівняння. Якісні прикметники мають позитивний, вищий і найвищий ступені.
Порівняльна ступень (the Comparative Degree) та найвища ступень (the Superlative Degree) утворюються трьома способами.
- Односкладові прикметники та двоскладові прикметники, що закінчуються на -у:, -er:, -le:, -ow: и др. утворюють форму порівняльної ступені за допомогою закінчення -er і форму найвищої ступені посередництвом закінчення -est.
short shorter shortesthigh higher highestlong longer longestlate later latestbig bigger biggestdry direr driesteasy easier easiestclever cleverer cleveresthappy happier happiestbitter bitterer bitterestsimple simpler simplestnarrow narrower narrowesthumble humbler humblestshallow shallower shallowest
- Утворення порівняльної та найвищої ступеней від інших коренів:
good better bestхороший лучше лучшийbad worse worstплохой хуже наихудшийmany (much) more mostмного больше больше всегоlittle less leastмаленький меньше наименьший
- Додання допоміжних слів more в порівняльній ступені й most в найвищий ступені к багатоскладовим прикметникам:
useful more useful most usefulinteresting more interesting most interestingdifficult more difficult most difficultimportant more important most important
Примітка: Слово most може уживатися перед іменником у множині. В цьому разі воно перекладається на українську мову словом "большість".
За своїм значенням прислівник поділяється на прислівник часу, місця, образа дії, міри та ступеню.
- Прислівники часу:
now зараз, теперalways завждиthen тодіusually, generally звичайноsoon скороoften частоstill все щеseldom, rarely рідкоyet ще, вжеsometimes інодіalready вжеnever ніколиjust тільки щоyesterday учораever коли-небудьtoday сьогодніsince відтодіtomorrow завтраbefore раніш, спершуat night уночі
- Прислівники місця:
here тут, сюдиup наверху, угоріthere там, тудиdown внизу, унизnear близько, біляforth вперед, даліfar далекоback назадinside всереденіforward уперед, даліoutside зовні, ззовніbackward назад, навпаки
- Прислівники образа дії.
До прислівників образа дії відносяться, головним чином, прислівники з суфіксом -ly, які були створені від якісних прикметників, а також деякі прості прислівники:
badly поганоwell добреslowly повільноhard уперто, неполегливоquickly швидкоfast швидкоloudly голосно, шумноaloud голосно, вголос
- Прислівники міри та ступеню.
Прислівники міри та ступеню визначають прикметник, прислівник або дієслово й визначають ступень, міру ознаки або дії. Деякі прислівники цієї групи є похідними, які створені за допомогою суфікса -ly: perfectly, extremely, exceedingly.
К прислівникам міри та ступеню відносяться:
much багато, значно, дужеlittle мало, небагато (a little небагато)very дуже (very much дуже)too надто, дужеquite цілком, зовсімenough доволі, доситьfairly досить, певною міроюrather досить, дещо, до деякої міри; кращеnearly, almost майжеhardly, scarcely ледве, навряд чи
Відносну групу складають питальні прислівники, які можуть виконувати у реченні функцію запитального слова.
До них відносяться:
when колиwhere деwhy чомуhow як
Ці прислівники також можуть виконувати функцію союзних слів, приєднуя придаткове речення до головного.
Деякі прислівники збігаються за формою з прикметниками:
early ранній, раноlong довгий, довгоfar далекий, далекоloud голосний, голосноfast швидкий, швидкоnear близький, близькоlate пізній, пізноclose близький, тісний, low низький, низько близько, недалеко
Деякі з цих слів та їм подібних приєднують суфікс -ly, але при цьому значення слова змінюється:
hard наполегливо, упертоhardly ледве, навряд чиhigh высокоhighly дуже, сильноlate пізноlately недавноnear близькоnearly майжеclose близько, недалекоclosely уважно, тісноshort різко, несподівано, крутоshortly швидко, скоро, незабаром
По складу вихідної (основної) форми англійські дієслова поділяються на прості, похідні та складні.
До простих дієслів відносяться дієслова, у складі яких немає суфіксів або префіксів: to work роботати; to go йти; to write писати та ін.
До похідних дієслів відносяться дієслова, у складі яких є суфікси або префікси: to realize здійснювати; to magnify збільшувати; to strengthen укріплювати; to surpass перевершувати; to foresee передбачати та ін.
До складних дієслів відносяться дієслова, які складаються з двох основ, але выражають одне поняття: to fulfil виконувати; to whitewash білити; to sightsee оглядати визначні місця та ін.
Деякі англійські дієслова являють собою сполучення дієслова з службовим словом (послєлогом), що збігається по формі з прислівником. Сполучення дієслова з послєлогом являє собою єдине змістовне ціле, хоча послєлог пишеться окремо й має самостійний наголос. За своєю функцією та значенням послєлог наближається до префіксу й часто відповідає українським приставкам, наприклад: to go in входити; to go out виходити; to go away відходити; to go bу проходити мимо та ін.
У деяких випадках сполучення дієслова з послєлогом має значення, відмінне від значення дієслова без послєлога, наприклад: to take брати, to take in обманути; to bring приносити, to bring about здійснювати; to set ставити, to set out відправлятися; to carry нести, to carry out здійснювати та ін.
Примітка: Деякі усталені сполучення, утворені синтаксичним способом із сполучень дієслова та іменника, відповідають за значенням дієсловам. Ці сполучення передають одне поняття й являють собою єдине ціле, наприклад: to take care турбуватися, to take notice помічати, to take part брати участь; to make haste поспішати та ін.
Єдине змістовне ціле представляє також сполучення дієслова to have з іменником, що передає однократну дію: to have a smoke покурити, to have a wash помитись, to have a look поглянути та ін.
Правильні та неправильні дієслова
(Regular Verbs and Irregular Verbs)
По способу утворення форм минулого неозначеного часу та дієприкметника II всі дієслова поділяються на правильні (Regular Verbs) та неправильні (Irregular Verbs). Больша частина англійських дієслів належить до правильних дієслів.
Правильні дієслова це такі дієслова, що утворюють форму минулого неозначеного часу (Past Indefinite) та форму дієприкметника II (Participle II) шляхом додання суфікса -ed к основі дієслова. Наприклад:
to workпрацюватиworkedworkedto stayзалишатисяstayedstayed
Неправильні дієслова це такі дієслова, які утворюють форму минулого неозначенного часу (Past Indefinite) та форму дієприкметника II (Participle II) особливими способами. Наприклад:
to burnпалити, горітиburntburntto sleepспатиsleptsleptto buildбудуватиbuiltbuiltto sendпосилатиsentsentto writeписатиwrotewrittento giveдаватиgavegivento cutрізатиcutcut
Крім цих головних способів утворення форм минулого неозначеного часу та дієприкметника II неправильних дієслів, існують інші способи утворення трьох основних форм неправильних дієслів (див. Додаток "Таблиця неправильних дієслів").
По значенню та синтаксичній ролі у реченні розрізняються дієслова самостійні, допоміжні, дієслова-звязки та модальні дієслова.
Модальні дієслова виражають не дію або стан, а відношення того, хто говорить до дії або стану. Вони мають значення можливості, необхідності, імовірності, бажаності дії, що позначається інфінітивом змістового дієслова, з яким вони утворюють складний дієсловний присудок.
До модальних дієслів відносяться дієслова must, can, may, ought, need. У якості модальних дієслів вживаються також дієслова shall, will, should, would, а також to be й to have.
Значення та вживання модальних дієслів
- Can (could) здатність, уміння; можливість, дозвіл; ввічливе прохання (could).
He can drive а car. You can wait in the hall.
- May (might) дозвіл; можливість.
May I go out? She told him that he might stay if he wished.
- Must обовязок, повинність; необхідність; наказ, команда.
I am afraid I must be going. Justice must not only be done, it must be seen to be done.
- Need (not) neednt відсутність необхідності.
You neednt worry about it. Everything will be all right.
- Ought (to) необхідність, що повязана з моральним обовязком, очікуванням, внутрішньой необхідністю.
You ought to come in. It is getting cold.
- To have (to) необхідність.
We have to take exams.
- to be (to) необхідність, що повязана з домовленністю, планом, розкладом.
We are to have meeting at 5 p. m.
Спосіб показує як той, хто говорить розглядає дію відносно дійсності. Як і в українській мові, в англійській мові існує три спосіба: дійсний, умовний та наказовий.
Дійсний спосіб (The Indicative Mood) показує, що той, хто говорить розглядає дію як реальний факт, який відноситься до теперешнього, минулого або майбутнього.
Умовний спосіб (The Subjunctive Mood) показує, що той, хто говорить розглядає дію не як реальний факт, а як передбачену, бажану або можливу дію при наявності яких-нибудь умов. У сучасному англійському словнику є дуже невелика кількість простих (синтетичних) форм умовного способу, які прийшли з древньоанглійської мови. Більшість форм умовного способу є складними (аналітичними) формами. Велика частина форм умовного способу в сучасній англійській мові збігається з формами дійсного способу.
Наказовий спосіб (The Imperative Mood) виражає волю того, хто говорить, спонукання до дії, прохання або наказ. Наприклад:
Write down your name here!Напишить тут ваше прізвище!Pass the dictionary, please.Передайте, будь ласка, словник.
(The Tenses of the verbs)
Система часів дієслова в англійській мові висловлює не тільки дію в теперешнєму, минулому та майбутньому часі, але й висловлює відношення дії до даного моменту часу або іншої дії.
До системи часів дієслова відносяться часи Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect. Основне значення цих часів наступне.
1. Indefinite Tenses. Дія, що відбувається в теперішньому, минулому або майбутньому часі, але не вказує на її характер, тривалість, завершеність чи передування іншій дії або певному моменту в минулому чи майбутньому. Можуть вживатися індикатори часу: usually, often, regularly, sometimes, every day, every month, once a week, last (next) week та ін. Наприклад:
He works in court. Він працює в суді.
He worked in court in 1999. Він працював в суді в 1999.
He will work in court next month. Він буде працювати в суді наступного місяця.
2. Continuous Tenses. Дія, що триває в момент мовлення або в теперішній період часу, тривала в якийсь момент чи період часу в минулому, триватиме в певний момент чи період часу в майбутньому. Дія в розвитку. Можуть вживатися індикатори часу: now, at this moment, at that moment. Наприклад:
I am writing a law report now. Я пишу доповідь з права зараз.
I was writing a law report at the moment you phoned. Коли ти зателефонував, я писав доповідь з права.
I will be writing a law report at this time tomorrow. У цей час завтра я писатиму доповідь з права.
3. Perfect Tenses. Дія, що відбувалася до певного моменту чи періоду в теперешньому часі, минулому чи майбутньому; завершена дія. Можуть вживатися індикатори часу: already, just, before, by that time, ever, never, lately та ін. Наприклад:
The investigator has already questioned prisoners. Слідчий вже допитав вязнів.
The investigator had questioned prisoners before the doctor submitted his report. Слідчий допитав вязнів до того, як лікар надав доповідь.
The investigator will have questioned prisoners by 7 oclock tomorrow. Слідчий допитав вязнів до 7 ранку.
4. Perfect Continuous Tenses. Дія, що почалася до моменту мовлення в теперішньому часі або до моменту мовлення в минулому чи майбутньому часі і триває до цього моменту. Дія в розвитку. Можуть вживатися індикатори часу: since 5 oclock, for a month, for a long time, by the 23rd of June 2004. Наприклад:
I have been stuuing Criminology for a few years. Я вивчаю кримінологію кілька років.
I had been studying Criminology for two years when you came home. Я вивчав кримінологію 2 роки, коли ви приїхали додому.
I will have been studying Criminology for two years by the end of the year. До кінця року буде вже 2 роки, як я вивчаю кримінологію.
Таблиця часів дієслова to write (писати)
у дійсному способі активного стану
Теперешнє(Present)Минуле(Past)Майбутнє(Future)Майбутнє в минулому (Futurein the Past)IndefiniteI writeя пишу(звичайно)I wroteя писав(написав)I shall writeя буду писати(напишу)I would writeя буду писати(напишу)ContiniousI am writing я пишу(зараз)I was writing я писавI shall be writingя буду писатиI would be writingя буду писатиPerfectI have writtenя написав(вже)I had writtenя написавI shall have writtenя напишуI would havewritten я напишуPerfect ContiniousI have beenwritingя пишуI had been writingя писавI shall havebeen writingя буду ПисатиI would havebeen writingя буду писати
Тільки два дієслівних часу Present Indefinite и Past Indefinite - у стверджувальній формі утворюються без допоміжних дієслів. В інших часах форма дієслова складна, утворюються за допомогою допоміжних дієслів.
- Future Indefinite утворюється за допомогою допоміжних дієслів shall і will та інфінитива змістового дієслова без частки to.
- Часи Continuous утворюються за допомогою допоміжного дієслова to be та дієприкметника I змістового дієслова.
- Часи Perfect утворюються за допомогою допоміжного дієслова to have та дієприкметника II змістового дієслова.
(The Indefinite Tenses)
теперешній неозначений час
The Present Indefinite Tense
Дієвідмінювання дієслова to write (писати) в Present Indefinite
Стверджувальна форма (Affirmative orm)Заперечна форма (Negative form)Питальна форма (Interrogative form)I writeI do not writeDo I write?hewriteshedoes not writeDoesHeshesheShewrite?ititItwewritewedo not writeDoWeyouyouYouwrite?theytheyThey
ВИКОРИСТАННЯ ТА переКЛАД
the Present Indefinite
Present Indefinite вживається для висловлювання:
1) повторюваної дії: I usually go to the University in the morning.
2) постійного стану: She lives in Ukraine.
3) незмінної істини,
загальновідомого факту: The Earth goes round the Sun.
Індикатори часу: usually, often, sometimes, seldom, always, every day (week, month, year…)
минулий неозначений час
The Past Indefinite Tense
Past Indefinite правильних дієслів утворюється доданням закінчення -ed до основної форми дієслова.
Дієвідмінювання правильного дієслова to work в Past Indefinite:
Стверджувальна формаЗаперечна формаПитальна формаIhesheitweyoutheyworkedIhesheitweyoutheydid not workDidIhesheitweyoutheywork?
Past Indefinite неправильних дієслів утворюється за допомогою ІІ форми дієслова (див. Додаток "Таблиця неправильних дієслів").
Дієвідмінювання неправильного дієслова to write в Past Indefinite:
СтверджувальнаформаЗаперечнаформаПитальнаформаIhesheitweyoutheywroteIhesheitweyoutheydid not writeDidI he sheit we you theywrite?
ВИКОРИСТАННЯ ТА переКЛАд
Past Indefinite вживається для висловлювання:
1) разової чи постійної дії в минулому: I studied Law at the University.
2) дій, що відбувалися в минулому одна за одною: She sealed the letter, put a stamp on it and posted it.
Індикатори часу: yesterday, the day before yesterday, last year, a month ago.
Майбутній неозначений час
The Future Indefinite Tense
Дієвідмінювання дієслова to write в Future Indefinite:
СтверджувальнаФормаЗаперечна формаПитальна формаI he she it we you they shallwillwillwillshallwillwillwriteI he she it we you they shall notwill notwill notwill notshall notwill notwill notwriteshallwillwillwillshallwillwillIhesheitweyoutheywrite?
ВИКОРИСТАННЯ ТА переКЛАд
Future Indefinite вживається для висловлювання:
1) разової чи постійної дії в майбутньому: I shall turn on the light since its rather dark here.
2) дій, які (не)можуть відбутися в майбутньому: Hell probably be late.
Індикатори часу: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, next year (month, week), in ... days (hours).
(to be) Participle I
теперешній тривалий час
The Present Continuous Tense
Дієвідмінювання дієслова to write в Present Continuous:
СтверджувальнаФормаЗаперечна формаПитальна формаI he she it we you they amisisisarearearewritingI he she it we you they am notis notis notis notare notare notare notwritingAmIsIsIsAreAreAreIhesheitweyoutheywriting?
Present Continuous вживається для висловлювання:
1) дії, що виконується в момент мовлення: He is discussing the matter.
2) запланованої дії в найближчому майбутньому: I am leaving for Kyiv tomorrow.
3) дій з прислівником always тощо, що виражають роздратування та критику: You are always interrupting me.
Індикатори часу: now, at the present moment, at this moment.
Present Continuous, як правило, не вживається з дієсловами, які висловлюють почуття: to love, to like, to hate тощо; сприйняття: to see, to hear, to feel, to know, to remember, to understand та ін.; а також з дієсловами to belong, to contain, to consist, to possess та ін.
минулий тривалий час
The Past Continuous Tense
Дієвідмінювання дієслова to write в Past Continuous:
Стверджувальна формаЗаперечна формаПитальна формаI hesheit we you they waswaswaswaswerewerewerewritingI he she it we you they was notwas notwas notwas notwere notwere notwere notwritingwas was was was were were were Ihesheitweyoutheywriting?
ВИКОРИСТАННЯ ТА переКЛАд
I. Past Continuous вживається для висловлювання:
1) дії, що відбувалася в певний момент у минулому: He was discussing the matter at that time yesterday.
2) емоційного підкреслення тривалості дії з такими означеннями часу, як all day (long), the whole morning, from 5 till 7, during (for) ... years (months) та ін.: It was raining all day yesterday and we had to stay indoors.
3) минулої дії в процесі, яка була перервана іншою дією: I was speaking on the phone when my mother came.
Індикатори часу: at that moment, at that time, at 5 oclock yesterday.
МайБутній тривалий час
The Future Continuous Tense
Дієвідмінювання дієслова to write в Future Continuous:
Стверджувальна формаЗаперечна формаПитальна формаI he she it we you they shallwillwillwillshallwillwillbe writingIhe she it we you they shall notwill notwill notwill notshall notwill notwill notbe writingshallwill will will shall will will Ihesheitweyoutheybe writing
ВИКОРИСТАННЯ ТА переклад
Future Continuous вживається для висловлювання:
1) дії в процесі в певний час у майбутньому: I shall be discussing the matter all day tomorrow.
2) емоційного підкреслення тривалості дії з такими означеннями часу, як all day tomorrow, all the time, from 9 till 12: They will be working at the laboratory from 9 till 12.
3) іншою однократною дією, яка виражається дієсловом в Present Indefinite (замість Future Indefinite), в підрядному реченні часу або умови: When he turns east, the patrols will be searching the area where they lost him.
Індикатори часу: all day long, the whole evening, at 5 oclock (to-morrow) та ін.
(to have) Participle II
теперешній досконалий час
The Present Perfect Tense
Дієвідмінювання дієслова to write в Present Perfect:
Стверджувальна формаЗаперечна формаПитальна формаI he she it we you they havehashashashavehavehavewrittenI he she it we you they have nothas nothas nothas nothave nothave nothave notwrittenhave has has has have have have Ihesheitweyoutheywritten?
ВИКОРИСТАННЯ Present Perfect
Present Perfect вживається для висловлювання:
- завершеної дії: I have already discussed the matter.
2.дії, що почалася в минулому та має результат на момен мовлення: She has changed a lot since last year.
3. дії, що закінчилася, але період часу, до якого вона має відношення, все ще продовжується. Використовуються такі означення часу, як today, this year, this month, this week, tonight, this morning: I havent seen him this month.
Індикатори часу: just, already, yet, ever, never, since, for.
минулий досконалий час
The Past Perfect Tense
Дієвідмінювання дієслова to write в Past Perfect:
Стверджувальна формаЗаперечна формаПитальна формаIhesheitweyoutheyhad writtenIhesheitweyoutheyhad not writtenhad Ihad hehad shehad ithad wehad youhad theywritten?
Past Perfect вживається для висловлювання:
1. минулої дії, що була завершена до іншої дії в минулому: He had studied particular subjects at university before he started teaching law.
2. дії, що була завершена до певного моменту в минулому: She had discussed the matter by the time I got there.
Індикатори часу: by, by that time, by 3 oclock, by the evening, by the end of the month.
Стан показує чи є персона або предмет, виражений іменником або займенником у функції підмета, виробником дії або сам зазнає на себе чиюсь дію. Це значення стану відбивається у формі дієслова.
Активний стан (The Active Voice) показує, что персона (або предмет), що відображено у реченні як підмет, вчиняє дію.
Popov invented the radio.The Queen heads the country.
Пасивний стан (The Passive Voice) показує, що дія дієслова-присудка направлено на персону або предмет, виражений іменником або займенником у функції підмета.
The radio was invented by Popov.
The country is headed by the Queen.
Дієвідмінювання дієслова в пасивному стані
to be + V-en
Present IndefiniteThe work is done well.Past IndefiniteThe work was done last week.Future IndefiniteThe work will be done next week.Present ContinuousThe work is being done now.Past ContinuousThe work was being done when the bell rang.Future Continuous--------------------------------Present PerfectThe work has been done already.Past PerfectThe work had been done by the end of the last week.Future PerfectThe work will have been done by the end of the week.
НЕОСОБОВІ ФОРМИ ДІЄСЛОВА
До неособових форм дієслова в англійській мові відносяться інфінітив, герундій та дієприкметник.
Неособові форми дієслова не виражають часу дії, лица, числа, спосібу.
Неособові форми дієслова лише вказують на співвіднесенність у часі, тобто чи є дія, що виражена їми одночасною з дією або становищем, вираженим особовою формою дієслова, або попереджає йому.
Без поєднання з особовою формою дієслова неособові форми не можуть бути присудком у реченні.
Інфінітив це неособова форма дієслова, яка лише називає дію взагалі, безвідносно до того, хто її виконує і коли. Зазвичай, інфінітив сприймають як початкову форму дієслова, яка представляє дієслово в словниках. У всіх своїх формах і функціях інфінітив має частку to.
ActivePassiveIndefiniteto callto be calledContiniousto be calling-------------Perfectto have calledto have been calledPerfect Continiousto have been calling--------------
Indefinite Infinitive Active та Passive вживається для відображення дії одночасної з дією дієслова-присудка у реченні.
I always manage to get on well with elderly people.
How did you manage to take this photograph?
I am glad to meet you.
Well, you seem to know all about it. (Здається, ти знаєш про це все).
One more in the game seemed now to be concluded. (Здавалося, що один поступ у грі зараз закінчено.)
Continuous Infinitive Active вживається для відображення тривалої дії, що здійснюється одночасно з дією дієслова-присудка.
I turned round the bookcase and pretended to be looking for a book. (Я повернувся до книжкової шафи й прикунувся, що шукаю книгу.)
She seemed to be glancing over his shoulder. (Здавалося, що вона дивилася через його плече.)
He seemed to be studying the police officer with a slightly wary expression. (Здавалося, що він вивчає офіцера поліції з трохи настородженим вираженням.)
Perfect Infinitive Active та Passive вживається для вираження дії, що попереджає дію дієслова-присудка.
He seems to have been the last person to talk to her. (Здається, він бул останнім, хто розмовляв з нею.)
She doesnt seem to have had anything to do with it. (Здається, що вона не мала жодного відношення до цього.)
He seems to have lost sight of her entirely. (Він, здається, зовсім втратив її із виду.)
She went away from here and she seems to have been quite lost sight of. (Вона уїхала звідси і, здаєтьсчя, її зовсім втратили із виду.)
Функції інфінітиву у реченні
To smoke is harmful for health.
To know everything is to know nothing.
It is easy to formulate this text.
- Частина складного іменого присудка.
His intention was to get into Parliament.
- Частина складного дієслівного присудка.
I must work to become a good lawyer.
The policeman has an excellent opportunity to prevent crime.
Has was the last to leave the office.
She has gone home to spend the holidays with her family.
He raised his voice so as to be heard by everybody.
Герундій це неособова форма дієслова, яка має властивості іменника і дієслова. Форми герундія утворюються за допомогою закінчення ing, яке додається до основи дієслова.
ActivePassiveIndefiniteWritingbeing writtenPerfecthaving writtenhaving been written
Функції герундія у реченні
Smoking is а bad habit.
- Частина складного іменого присудка.
My aim is reading English books in the original.
- Прямий додаток.
He suggested going home.
- Прийменниковий додаток.
I am fond of reading detective stories.
She had а feeling of having been deceived.
He left the room without saying good-bye.
В англійській мові є два дієприкметника: Participle I й Participle II. Participle I це неособова форма дієслова, що має властивості прикметника і прислівника. Participle I утворюється за допомогою закінчення ing, яке додається до основи дієслова.
Participle II це неособова форма дієслова, що має властивості дієслова і прикметника. Participle II має тільки одну форму до правильних дієслів додається закінчення ed, для неправильних дієслів ІІІ форма дієслова. Основні значення Participle II стан як результат дії і сама дія.
ActivePassiveParticiple Iaskingbeing askedParticiple II-------askedPerfect Participlehaving askedhaving been asked
Функції дієприкметника І у реченні
В цій функції дієприкметник може займати місце перед означуваним іменником або після ього:
Each force has a police authority a kind of governing body. Кожний поліцейський підрозділ має свою владу свого рода правлячий орган.
The Home Secretary makes regulation governing the conditions of service of all police officers. Міністр внутрішніх справ виносить постанови, що регулюють цельові служби усіх офіцерів поліції.
2.1. Часу. В цій функції дієприкметнику можуть попереджати сполучники when та while:
One must be careful (when) crossing the street. Треба бути уважним, коли переходиш вулицю.
Taking his seat he looked at his watch. Заняв своє місце, він подивився на годинник.
Having written several letters he went to post them. Написав декілька листів, він пішов відправити їх.
Being very tired with his walk, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles.
Устав від прогулянки, він швидко заснув і забув про свої проблеми.
Not knowing what to do he stood back.
Не зная що робити, він відійшов назад.
2.3. Образа дії або супутніх умов:
She just sat there crying silently.
Вона просто сиділа там й мовчки плакала.
She stood silently as if thinking about something.
Вона мовчки стояла, наче думала про щось.
Функції дієприкметника ІІ у реченні
The police service is now a closed service.
Полицейська служба зараз є закритою службою.
The Supreme Court has the rights to declare unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress.
Верховний Суд має право оголошувати неконституційним будь-який закон, прийнятий Конгресом.
When questioned closely she said that she had not seen her husband lately.
Коли її ретельно допитали, вона сказала, що не бачила свого чоловіка останнім часом.
If found guilty of any crime, the accused may have the rights to appeal to a higher court.
Якщо звинувачений визнається винним у будь-якому злочині, він має право подати скаргу у вищій суд.
She stood motionless as if lost in thought.
Вона стояла нерухомо, наче глубоко задумалася.
Her spirit, though crushed, was not broken.
Її дух, хоча й пригнічений, не бул зломлений.
Непрямі питання поділяються на два типа: непрямі питання, що відповідають у прямій мові загальним питанням, та непрямі питання, що відповідають у прямій мові спеціальним питанням.
Непрямі питання, що відповідають у прямій мові загальним питанням, тобто питанням, що починаються з дієслова, приєднуються до дієслівного речення сполучниками if або whether. Ці сполучники відповідно перекладаються часткою чи.
I ask you, "Have you informed the police about the theft?"
I wonder whether you have informed the police about the theft.
He asked: "Will you informed the police about the theft".
He asked me if I should informed the police about the theft.
Непрямі питання, що відповідають у прямій мові спеціальним питанням, тобто питанням, які починаються з питального слова, приєднуються до головного речення тим же питальним словом, що у непрямому питанні стає сполучниковим словом.
(Sequence of tenses)
Однією з особливостей англійської мови є правило узгодження часів. Узгодження часів це залежність часової форми присудка у підрядній частині речення від часової форми присудка у головній частині речення. Правила узгодження часів діють у додаткових підрядних реченнях. Якщо дієслово в головному реченні вжите в минулому часі, то в додатковому підрядному дієслово буде вжите в одному з минулих часів.
- Past Indefinite та Past Continuous дія в підрядному реченні збігається в часі з головним реченням:
I thought you were at home.
She said she didnt know who the robber was.
I thought you were working at you report.
- Past Perfect или Past Perfect Continuous дія в підрядному реченні передує дії головного:
I knew that he had made a report at the conference.
He said that he had been working at his report for three days.
We were told that the man had committed a crime.
- Future-in-the Past дія в підрядному реченні відбувається після дії головного:
I thought I should be in time for lessons.
They were sure they would find the robber.
He said he would have done the work by the end of the work.
Розрізняють складносурядні та складнопідрядні речення.
Складносурядні речення складаються з двох або більше речень, які поєднуються між собою сурядними сполучниками або безсполучниковим звязком. Сурядні сполучники:
and й, аbut алеor абоas well as також як іeither … or або … абоneither … nor ні … ні not only … but also не тільки … але й
Іноді замість сполучників використовуються сполучникові слова:
otherwise начеhowever однакtherefore томуhence отже
Cложнопідрядні речення складаються з головного й одного або декількох підрядних речень, які поєднуються між собою підрядними сполучниками або сполучниковими словами (відносними займенниками та прислівниками).
Типи підрядних речень визначаються їхньою позицією (функцією), звязком з іменниками, з дієсловами-звязками, синтаксичними відношеннями та сполучниками.
Підрядні речення підмета та дадаткові приєднуються до голо вного речення
that щоwhether, if чи
Підрядні предикативні речення приєднуються до головного
that щоwhether, if чи
Разом з дієсловом-звязкою вони утворюють складний іменний присудок:
The most important and disturbing question is whether a general strike is legal.
Підрядні означенні речення приєднуються до головного за допомогою сполучникових слів відносних займенників та прислівників:
who якийwhen колиwhom якогоwhere де, кудиwhose чий, якогоwhy чомуwhich, that котрий
Підрядні обставинні речення виконують функції різних обставин й відповідно поділяються на обставенні речення:
where де, куди
wherever де би ні, куди би ні
when, while - в той час як, коли
as коли, в той час як
as soon as як тільки
till, until, as long as поки, до тех пір поки
before перш ніж
after після того як
since з тих пір як
3. Образа дії:
as if, as though наче, якщо
as …as так (такий) же …як
not so … as не так (такий) … як
the … the чим …тим
because тому що
as так як
since оскільки, так як
that, in order that, so that щоб, для того щоб
so that так що
so … that так … що
unless якщо ні
in case (that) у випадку якщо
provided при умові що
though, although хоча, незважаючи на те, що.
Слід зазначити, що деякі підрядні сполучники вводять різні типи обставинних речень. Так, сполучник since може вживатися в обставинних реченнях часу та причини.
E.g.: More than two centuries have passed since the United States Constitution was adopted.
(since сполучник часу)
Since the rates are paid by the people in the area of the council there is local financial responsibility between council and electors.
(since сполучник причини).
Сполучник as може вводити обставинні речення:
а) часу; б) причини; в) образа дії; г) порівняння.
E. g.: 1. As police questioned Miranda, he confessed to a kidnapping and rape.
2. As the police had not told him he could remain silent, he claimed his rights had been violated.
3. The robber left the house as he had entered it.
4. She saw now that she did not love him as some women love their husbands.
ТаблицЯ неправильнИх ДІЄСЛІВ
InfinitivePastIndefiniteParticiple IIПерекладto be to beat to becometo begin to blowto breakto bringto buildto burnto buyto catchto chooseto come to cost to cutto doto draw to drinkto driveto eatto fallto feelto fightto findto flyto forget to getto giveto goto growto haveto hearto holdto keep to knowto leadto learn to leaveto lendto letto loseto maketo meanto meetto putto readto ringto runto sayto seeto sellto sendto setto shineto shootto showto shutto singto sitto sleepto speakto spendto standto striketo sweepto swimto taketo teachto tellto thinkto throwto understandto waketo wearto win to writewas, werebeatbecame began blew brokebrought builtburntboughtcaughtchosecamecostcutdiddrewdrankdroveate [et]fell feltfoughtfoundflewforgotgotgavewent grewhadheardheldkeptknewledlearnt, learnedleftlentletlostmademeant [ment]metputread [red]rangransaid [sed]sawsoldsentsetshoneshotshowedshutsangsatsleptspokespentstoodstrucksweptswamtooktaughttoldthoughtthrewunderstoodwokeworewonwrotebeen beatenbecome begunblownbrokenbroughtbuiltburntboughtcaughtchosencomecostcutdonedrawndrunkdriveneatenfallenfeltfoughtfoundflownforgottengotgivengonegrownhadheardheldkeptknownledlearnt, learnedleftlentletlostmademeantmetputreadrungrunsaidseensoldsentsetshoneshotshownshutsungsatsleptspokenspentstoodstrucksweptswumtakentaughttoldthoughtthrownunderstoodwokenwornwonwrittenбути бити становитисяпочинати(ся)дутиломатиприноситибудуватигорітикуплятиловитиобиратиприходитикоштуватирізатиробити тягти, малюватипитивезтиїстипадатипочуватиборотися знаходити літатизабуватиотримуватидаватиїхати розсти, вирощуватиматичути, почуватитримати тримати, зберігатизнативести вчитися, узнаватипокидати, залишатидавати у позику дозволятигубити, втрачати робити, створюватизначитизустрічатикласти, ставитичитатизвонити, дзвенітибігти сказати, говоритибачитипродавати посилати поміщати, класти світити, сяятистрілятипоказуватизачинятиспіватисидітиспатирозмовлятивитрачатистоятиударятиместиплаватибратинавчатирозповідатидуматикидатирозумітипрокидатисяноситивиграватиписати
Active words and word combinations
Forms of greetingOur UniversityDaily routineAt my command! Fall in! As you were! At ease\rest! Fall out! Dismissed! Attention!\Ready front! Eyes right\left\front! Dress! Dress right\left! Right\left, face! About face! Forward, march!Double time, march! Mark time, march! In place, double time, march! Halt! the University of Internal Affairseducationeducational institutionto detectoperational detectioneconomic security activitycorrespondent/distant trainingmilitia officerto raise ones educational leveljurisprudencepart-time studentsacademic yeartermto provideknowledge and skillsto be engaged in scientific researchesphysical and military trainingfull-time studentsto get experiencelaw-enforcement bodiescourtprosecutorbachelors degreepostgraduate schoolto accomplishMaster of Lawfirst-year studentlawyermilitary schoolinstructions and classesdrill and ceremoniesinterior guard dutyto have spare timereveilleto form updrill groundself-preparationroll-calltapsduty rosterdetail for the guardsenior of the guardofficer of the daycommander of the guard reliefpatrolsentinelto be armed and equippedguardhouse
Active words and word combinations
Sate structure of UkrainePolitical system of Great BritainPolitical system of USAindependentindependencelegalcitizensovereignpowers and dutiessource of power governmentlegislativeexecutivejudicialto elect (election)to votesuffrageby secret ballotto make lawCommander-in-Chief the State Budgetto speak on behalf ofto be responsible for/ to to carry outdomestic (home) policyforeign policyto developjusticejurisdictionConstitutional courtthe Supreme courtcourt of general jurisdictionmonarchyQueento summontemporalRoyal AssentHouse of CommonsHouse of Lordsto preside overhereditary basisLord ChancellorBishop of the Church of Englandpeerconstituenсyto hold (held)to gain a majorityshadow cabinetto deal with (dealt)elected councilfederalfederativefederationunitdistrictofficeSenateHouse of Representativesto renewto guaranteePreambleamendmentto searchcausereasonto permitpermissioncourtto determinepermanent
Active words and word combinations
Militia of UkraineBritish Police SystemThe USA Police Systemin accordance witharmed agencyto be aimeddignity and honourenvironmentto combat banditryto counteractencroachmentsfavorable conditionsprofitable grounddistribution of drugs firearmesto launder moneyphenomenon (pl.phenomena)court proceedingcriminal gangstaffmilitia rankrecruitmenton a voluntary basisto enrollqualitypolice forcepolice officerconstablesergeantsuperintendantchief constableauthorityto maintain public orderto detect crimerates of payconditions of servicecode of disciplineoath of loyaltyto serveto retirehierarchy of rankssubordinationto commit a crime(an offence)to arrest on suspicioncircumstancesto acceptmagistrateheadquartersdeputystaffbackground of police workterritorial divisionsenior officerreportpolice stationpolitical unitpolice agencyCentral Intelligence agencylevelto investigateinvestigatorto chargeto charge with murderto be charged withto be responsible forparticularjurisdictionconsiderablylaw enforcement powerspatrolhighwaysto be restrictedtraffictraffic officer (cop)traffic lawstraffic lightto identifyidentificationclearing housesto detect (crime)detective forceto be attached tooffice of the governortownshipmarshalmunicipal police departmentrecruitpromotion courses
Active words and word combinations
Judiciary of UkraineBritish Judicial System The USACourt Systemextensive to embrace peculiaritycriminal case civil case to examine significanceprocuratorthe Procurator's Office judgeassessor observanceto ensurefaircircumstances to precede evidencepreliminaryconclusionguiltguiltypenaltyto violateconvictionconformitypunishmentsentencejudicialsource of lawdistinctionwrongcourtcasecase law(judge-made law)judgeto trytrialfeaturemagistratescourtjuryto bring a case before the courtproceeding(s)summary jurisdictioncircuitHigh Court (of Justice)appealRecorder (of London)county courtcourt of appeal (court of appellate jurisdiction) to concernto be concerned with (syn. to deal with)to reducejudiciaryChief justiceassociate justicejudicial circuitviolationviolencejustice of the peaceminorto handleto resign to hold office
Active words and word combinations
Criminal LawInvestigationto be definedto prevent harmsocietyto specifyconductto implyto injureassault robberytheftviolationto refer tooutlawed /illegal actpunishmentto be convicted of smthpenaltyfelonymisdemeanorto impose sentenceprison /jailimprisonmentthiefburglarrobbershop-lifterpick-pocketkidnappermurdereraccomplicedrug dealerbigamisttraitorforgersmugglerspyarsonistGangsterto accomplishthreefold aimphysical evidenceinterrogationaccusedinstrumentationwitnessto interviewconscientiouscultivated sourcesinformantacquaintanceіbartenderinsightaidpathologyto traceto be locatedaccident incidentmatter casecrime offenceproof evidenceinguiryinvestigationscene place
Active words and word combinations
TerrorismDrug trafficingfearthreathostagehijack ( hijacking )explosion explosivepremeditatedperpetratednoncombatant targetminorityintimidationto make doubtstooladvantagesdisadvantagesprofitreligious beliefto clashto destroydestructionstruggle combatterrorist networksto spread fearinhospitablecapabilityto eliminateto acquirenuclear weaponshigh-yield explosivedrugsfor instanceprohibitedprescriptionglues solventshempjointconsumptionmental disordersto impair fitnesspoppyaddictiveaddictionaddictssyringeabuseto snortto sufferpersecution maniaclandestinewithdrawal symptoms
ПЕРЕДМОВАPHONETIC GUIDEBASIC COURSEМodule 1. Unit 1.Topic: Forms of greeting. Biography.Grammar: Noun (singular, plural). Articles. Personal Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns.Verbs: to be, to have.Numerals. Degrees of Comparison. Possessive caseМodule 1. Unit 2.Text: Our University.Grammar: Countable and Uncountable Nouns.There is/are.Present, Past, Future Simple (Indefinite) Tenses. To be going to. PrepositionsМodule 2. Unit 1.Text: State structure of Ukraine.Grammar: Present, Past Perfect Tenses. The Passive Voice.Мodule 2. Unit 2.Text: Political system of Great Britain.Grammar: Future Perfect Tense. The Passive Voice.Мodule 2. Unit 3.Topic: Political system of the USA.Grammar: The Passive Voice.Мodule 3. Unit 1.Text: Militia of Ukraine.Grammar: Imperative Mood. Subjunctive Mood.Мodule 3. Unit2.Text: British Police System.Grammar: Infinitive. Gerund.Мodule 3. Unit 3.Text: The United States Police System.Grammar: Participle I. Participle II.Мodule 4. Unit 1.Text: Judiciary of Ukraine.Grammar: Sequence of Tenses.Мodule 4. Unit 2.Text: British Judicial System.Grammar: Sequence of Tences. Direct and Indirect speech.Мodule 4. Unit 3.Text: The United States Court System.Grammar: Indirect speech.Мodule 5. Unit 1.Topic: Criminal law.Grammar: Compound and Complex sentences. The Conjunction.Мodule 5. Unit 2.Topic: Investigation.Grammar: Compound and Complex sentences. The Conjunction.Мodule 6. Unit 1.Topic: Terrorism.Grammar: Phrasal verbs.Мodule 6. Unit 2.Topic: Drug Trafficing.Grammar: Revision.TEXTS FOR INDIVIDUAL WORKGRAMMAR GUIDEWORD INDEXРекоМЕНДОВАНА лІтература
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