1.2 Norman Conquest
The Norman Conquest began in 1066. The Normans adopted the French language and culture, and when they came to Britain, they brought with them the French language. The Norman Conquest had far-reaching consequences for the English people and the English language.
The English nobility perished and was replaced by the Norman barons. The heritage of the Norman Conquest was manifold. It united England to Western Europe, opening the gates to European culture and institution, theology, philosophy and science.
The Saxon machinery of government was immensely reinforced. The 13 century witnessed the appearance of the first Parliament, or a council of barons, which later was changed to a nation Parliament.
The Norman conquerors were people who despised the English customs and habits. But eventually after a prolonged struggle the English language got ascendance over French and again became the state language of the country.
Formation of the English national Language.
End of the Middle English period and the beginning of New English is marked by the following events in the life of the English people: the end of the war between the White and the Red Rose in 1485 and introduction of printing in 1477 by William Caxton.
It signified a predominance of the national language over local dialects.
The appearance of a considerable number of printed books contributed to the normalisation of spelling and grammar forms fostering the choice of a single variant over others.
A notable feature of the Middle English period is the dialectical variety .
In the 14th century that the London dialect, itself a mixture of the southern and south-eastern dialects, began to emerge as the dominant type.
The English national language was uppermost among Middle English dialects.
The importance of the London dialect grew because of the fact that many of the best writers of the 14th-15th centuries were Londoners or used the London dialect in their writings.
The 15th century is generally referred to as the time of the beginning of the English national language, but the literary norm of the language was established later, already in Early New English.