The origin of the English words: Borrowings (Source and origin. Donor languages. Etymological doublets and hybrids).Stylistically neutral and marked words.

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The origin of the English words: Borrowings (Source and origin. Donor languages. Etymological doublets and hybrids).Stylistically neutral and marked words.

Over the course of its development the English language has been influenced by the other languages. According to the measure of the influence we distinguish major and minor influences on the development of the English language. Major InfluencesCelticThe number of celticisms in English is small (about a dozen), as the subjugated Celtic tribes had to learn the language of their Germanic conquerors. Place names are the main sphere where old Celtic words can be found.RomanThe first Roman occupation was led by Caesar in 55 BC. By the year 140 AD the whole Britain (except for the northernmost of Scotland) was held by Romans. The occupation of the country by Romans lasted till the fall of Roman Empire (410 AD).ScandinavianThe years 750 – 1050 are known as The Viking Age of England. Scandinavians conquered the North and East of England. Although the Scandinavians were peaceful colonists their influence upon the language was strong. The words of Scandinavian origin may be found not only among place names (-beck, -brick), surnames (-son, -sen) but also within the words from common, everyday life (window, fellow, husband, sister, sky, happy, ill, etc.). The most important Scandinavian word is “they”.Norman and FrenchThe Norman period began by the Battle of Hastings (1066), and lasted nearly 300 years. Speech, habits, customs, culture were influenced by Normans. Consequently the main spheres where the words of Norman origin can be found are:1. Administration (state, reign, parliament, etc.)2. Titles of nobility (baron, prince, princess, etc.)3. Military (war, peace, army, captain, etc.)4. Law (justice, judge, prison, etc.)5. Economy and trade (money, tax, rent, etc.)6. Religion (religion, pray, service, etc.)7. Housing (city, village, palace, etc.)8. Culinary (pork, beef, veal, boil, etc.)9. Occupations, crafts (carpenter, painter, tailor, etc.)Latin and GreekThe first period of Latin influence was during the Roman occupation.The second wave of the influence came with the christianization of the country and enriched the English vocabulary with words such as : angel, altar, candle, minister, nun, organ, pope, psalm, etc.The third wave dated to the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries – the period of New Learning, when Greek and Latin were established as the main languages of learning, science, and culture. Not only the vocabulary was under their influence, but also the grammar system (single negation), and stylistics.

Minor InfluencesDutchThe contact with the Dutch language was mediated by the political, commercial, and cultural contacts; thus the main spheres were maritime terminology (dock, gin, commodore, etc.), and terminology of drawing and painting (sketch, landscape, etc.).ItalianMain spheres are business (bank, risk, bankrupt, etc.), music, and architecture.OthersSpanish, German, Russian, Czech, Indian, Japanese, Red Indian, etc.

Loanwords are words adopted by the speakers of one language from a different language (the source language). A loanword can also be called a borrowing. The abstract noun borrowing refers to the process of speakers adopting words from a source language into their native language. "Loan" and "borrowing" are of course metaphors, because there is no literal lending process. There is no transfer from one language to another, and no "returning" words to the source language. The words simply come to be used by a speech community that speaks a different language from the one these words originated in.

Borrowing is a consequence of cultural contact between two language communities. Borrowing of words can go in both directions between the two languages in contact, but often there is an asymmetry, such that more words go from one side to the other. In this case the source language community has some advantage of power, prestige and/or wealth that makes the objects and ideas it brings desirable and useful to the borrowing language community. For example, the Germanic tribes in the first few centuries A.D. adopted numerous loanwords from Latin as they adopted new products via trade with the Romans. Few Germanic words, on the other hand, passed into Latin.

Etymological doublets.Doublets are two words which were derived from the same basic word but by different routs. They differ in sound-form and meaning. The main source of etymological doublets in English is Latin language.There are two reasons of the process:1. One word was borrowed directly from Latin and the other – from French (major)2. Words borrowed twice (discus → disc → dish, disk) (camera-chamber) (skirt-shirt)Etymological hybridsHybrids are words that consist of etymologically different morphemes:1. A native root + borrowed word-building morphemes ((to like – to dislike (Latin))2. Borrowed root + native affix (peaceful (French))3. Both elements are borrowed but from different languages (violinist (Italian+Greek))

Stylistically Marked and Stylistically Neutral Words

     The basic stylistic division of the vocabulary is stylistically neutral and

stylistically marked words. The former can be used in any situation and make up

the greater part of every utterance. The latter are found only in specific contexts.

horse (neutral) – steed (poetic) – gee-gee (a nursery word).

      Stylistically marked words are subdivided into formal and informal. Formal

vocabulary includes special terms (morpheme, phoneme), learned words (initial, to

exclude), official words (to dispatch, to summon) and poetic words (woe, to

behold, lone). Informal vocabulary is subduvided into standard colloquial and

substandard: slang, argot, dialectal, familiar and vulgar words. Colloquial

vocabulary includes common polysemantic words (thing, get, really, nice), nouns

converted from verbs (give a scare, make-up), verbs with postpositives (think out,

come on), substantivized adjectives (woolies, daily), emotional units (a bit tired, by

God, oh), modal words and expressions (definitely, in a way, rather, by no means).

Slang words are fresh and shocking words for usual things: drunk – boozy, cocke-

eyed, soaked, tight.

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Over the course of its development the English language has been influenced by the other languages. According to the measure of the influence we distinguish major and minor influences on the development of the English language.

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