Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова»
Кафедра английского языка для инженерных направлений подготовки
Щинин Александр Юрьевич
(фамилия, имя, отчество студента)
21.03.01 Нефтегазовое дело
(код и наименование направления подготовки/специальности)
The Development Process
Отметка о зачёте
ЛИСТ ДЛЯ ЗАМЕЧАНИЙ
Оглавление TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u
THE BASIC PROCESS4
ADVANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES
UNCONVENTIONAL NATURE GAS…………………………………………………...…7
IMPROOVING THE PROCESS
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННЫХ ИСТОЧНИКОВ……………………………….……..12
THE BASIC PROCESS
The oil and gas extraction industry can be classified into four major processes:
Exploration involves the search for rock formations associated with oil or natural gas deposits, and involves geophysical prospecting and/or exploratory drilling.
Well development occurs after exploration has located an economically recoverable field, and involves the construction of one or more wells from the beginning (called spudding) to either abandonment if no hydrocarbons are found, or to well completion if hydrocarbons are found in sufficient quantities
Production is the process of extracting the hydrocarbons and separating the mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, gas, water, and solids, removing the constituents that are non-saleable, and selling the liquid hydrocarbons and gas. Production sites often handle crude oil from more than one well. Oil is nearly always processed at a refinery; natural gas may be processed to remove impurities either in the field or at a natural gas processing plant.
Finally, site abandonment involves plugging the well(s) and restoring the site when a recently-drilled well lacks the potential to produce economic quantities of oil or gas, or when a production well is no longer economically viable.
ADVANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES
Traditionally oil and gas wells are vertically drilled. Technological advancements have allowed operators to save time, reduce operational costs, and lessen their environmental impact. New drilling technologies include the following techniques:
Horizontal drilling starts with a vertical well that turns horizontal within the reservoir rock in order to expose more open hole to the reservoir. These horizontal “legs” can be over a mile long; the longer the exposure length, the more oil and natural gas is drained and the faster it can flow. Horizontal wells are attractive because they can be used in situations where conventional drilling is impossible or cost effective, reduce surface disturbance by requiring less wells to reach the reservoir, and can produce as much as 15 to 20 times as much oil and gas compared to a vertical well.
Sometimes oil and natural gas reserves are located in separate layers underground. Multilateral drilling allows operators to branch out from the main well to tap reserves at different depths. This dramatically increases production from a single well and reduces the number of wells drilled on the surface.
Extended Reach Drilling
Extended reach drills allow producers to reach deposits that are great distances away from the drilling rig. This can help producers tap oil and natural gas deposits under surface areas where a vertical well cannot be drilled, such as under developed or environmentally sensitive areas. Wells can now reach out over 5 miles from the surface location and, dozens of wells can be drilled from a single location, reducing surface impacts.
Complex Path Drilling
Complex well paths can have multiple twists and turns to try to hit multiple accumulations from a single well location. Using this technology can be more cost effective and produce less waste and surface impacts than drilling multiple wells.
Benefits of Directional (Advanced) Drilling Technologies:
Improve oil production and increase reserves
Intersecting natural fractures that cannot be accessed with vertical wells
Delaying the onset of gas or water coning ( a term used to describe the mechanism underlying the upward movement of water and/or the downward movement of gas into the perforations of a producing well) so that more oil is produced.
Improving production from thin or tight reservoirs
For reservoirs injected with fluids to increase oil or gas production, improving waterflood “sweep efficiency” or the ability to force more oil out of the reservoir after initial extraction.
UNCONVENTIONAL NATURE GAS
Unconventional oil resources are produced by methods other than the traditional oil well. These resources include oil sands, tar sands, heavy oil, and oil shale, but are beyond the scope of this website. Unconventional natural gas development is characterized by unique geologic attributes that make the reservoirs more challenging to produce. The formations are generally tighter or have a lower permeability and include tight gas, shale gas, hydrates,and coalbed methane.
IMPROOVING THE PROCESS
A variety of new technologies and practices can be implemented to minimize the environmental footprint of development. In the following sections and links, we spotlight some examples in the Intermountain West.
Development of each well requires certain basic processes, facilities, equipment, and personnel. That said, innovators have realized that, at least in some situations, the overall environmental footprint in a field can be reduced by consolidating some of these. Examples of consolidation include:
Multiple wells: Drilling from a few to a few dozen wells from a single pad
Corridors: Roads, pipes, and transmission lines sited in common corridors
Staging/Storage: Remotely storing materials and/or staging development activities, including fracing and other well completions
Some of the benefits and drawbacks of consolidation practices include:
Multiple-well drill pads: New methods of drilling allow smaller surface pads to reach a greater exploratory acreage beneath the surface. Multi-well drilling pads utilize advanced drilling techniques for access to multiple locations in a reservoir. Potentially, several subterranean sources can be contacted from the same pad.
Common Corridors: All utilities such as water, electricity, oil, and gas can follow common paths. Utility lines and product pipelines can also be sited either adjacent to roadways or underneath them, eliminating multiple, manmade pathways leading to a drill site. This lessens the need for the construction of multiple infrastructure pathways.
Centralized Staging and Storage: Both production materials and production products can be stored in centralized field storage facilities. Storage tanks can be housed in an area that is within a close proximity to the well site. Oil from all well sites can be placed in this centralized location rather than be stored on the well pads. Tankers will not need to make a pick-up at each well site. Less traffic can mean fewer emissions, reduced impact on wildlife, neighbors and road infrastructure, and may allow for construction of a lower volume roadway. Centralized staging areas for development processes can have these same benefits and reduce cost and materials of development.
attractive – привлекательный, притягательный
disturbance – неисправность, повреждение
drain – высасывать, выкачивать
emission – выделение, распространение
expose – делать видимым, обнажать
footprint – след, отпечаток
impact – удар, толчок
impurity – грязь, загрязнение
occur – залегать
pathway – магистраль
quantity – количество
reduce – сокращать, уменьшать
spudding – рыхление почвы
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННЫХ ИСТОЧНИКОВ
Intermountain Oil and Gas BMP Project [Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://www.oilandgasbmps.org/resources/development.php (дата обращения: 07.04.2015).
ABBYY Lingvo – Online [Электронный ресурс]. Режим доступа: http://www.lingvo-online.ru/ru/Translate/en-ru/widely (дата обращения: 07.04.2015).