Typology of THF. Morphological systems of english and ukrainian points for discussion



  1.  Typological features of the verb.
  2.  Category of tense in English and Ukrainian.
  3.  Category of aspect in English and Ukrainian.
  4.  Category of person in English and Ukrainian.
  5.  Number of English and Ukrainian verbs.
  6.  Category of voice in English and Ukrainian.
  7.  Category of mood in English and Ukrainian.
  8.  Syntactic functions of English and Ukrainian verbs.
  9.  Modal verbs in English and Ukrainian.
  10.  Verbals in English and Ukrainian.


Балабан Г. Наймолодші часові прийменники // Українська мова. – 2005. – № 2. – С. 129. 

Безпояско О. Граматика української мови. Морфологія. – К.: Либідь, 1993.

Блох М.Я. Теоретическая грамматика английского язьша. – М.: Высшая школа, 1983.

Введение в сравнительную типологию английского, русского и украинского языков /К.К. Швачко, П.В. Терентьев, Т.Г. Янукян, С.А. Швачко. – К.: Вища школа, 1977.

Вихованець І., Городенська К. Теоретична морфологія української мови. – К.: Пульсари, 2004.

Гладуш Н.Ф. Теоретична граматика англійської мови в таблицях і схемах. – К.: Видавничий центр КНЛУ, 2002.

Грамматика английского языка. Морфология / Кобрина Н.А., Корнеева Е. А., Оссовская М. И., Гузеева К. А. – М.: Просвещение. 1985.

Дослідження з порівняльної граматики української, російської та англійської мов. – К.: Вища школа, 1977.

Жлуктенко Ю.О. Порівняльна граматика української та англійської мов. – К.: Радянська школа, 1960.

Загнітко А.П. Теоретична граматика української мови: Морфологія. – Донецьк: ДонНУ, 1996.

Иванова И.П., Бурлакова В.В., Почепцов Г.Г. Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка. — М.: Высшая школа, 1981.

Клоуз Р.А. Справочник по грамматике для изучающих английский язык. – М.: Просвещение, 1979.

Кочерган М. П. Основи зіставного мовознавства. – К.: Академія, 2006.

Микитюк О. Числівник // Диво слово. – 2003. – № 3. – С. 27-32.

Плющ М. Граматика української мови. Морфеміка. Словотвір. Морфологія. – К.: Вища школа, 2005.

Плющ М. Я., Грипас Н, Я. Граматика української мови в таблицях. – К.: Вища школа, 2004.

Раєвська Н. М. Теоретична граматика сучасної англійської мови. Ч. І. – К.: Вид-во Київського ун-ту, 1967.

Сучасна українська мова / За ред. О. Д. Пономарева. – К.: Либідь, 2005.

Харитонов І. К. Теоретична граматика сучасної англійської мови. – Ніжин: НДГІІ, 1992.

Чолкан В. До питання про морфологічний статус частки // Південний архів (філол. науки): 36.наук.праць. – Херсон, 2003, – Вип. ХІV. – С.194-197.

Ющук І.П. Українська мова. – К.:Либідь, 2004.

Korunets I.V. Contrastive Typology of the English and Ukrainian Languages. – K.: Lybid, 1995.


  1.  Divide the following verbs into groups, which denote a) action; b) process; c) state; d) relations:

стати, любити, тривати, хотіти, прагнути, могти, читати; play, sit, carve, think, buy, last, lie, bring.

  1.  Flight, asleep are used to denote action and process, though they are not classified as verbs. Give the reasons.
    1.  Find verbs in the following sentences. Give the reasons:

1.1 shall be so thankful not to face another drive alone. 2. He came face to face with the enemy. 3. We must oil our engine well. 4. So they took oil cans with funny long noses. 5. That night he could not get any sleep till late. 6. It's a shame to sleep at such a time.

  1.  State whether the italicized verbs are notional or auxiliary:

1. "There has been such a rush of work this week." 2. We were to drink tea at the Doctor's. 3. "You have a kind aunt and cousins". 4. The next day Caroline had to spend altogether alone. 5. At length he did receive a message from the stone-mason's yard that a job was waiting for him. 6. Light was coming through in the corner flat, and he could hear a piano being played. 7. I was afraid you would forget.

  1.  Dwell upon the syntactic functions of English verbs. Compare them with those of Ukrainian verbs:

l. He is her friend. 2. I have a problem for you to discuss. 3. Max led the way into the library. 4. I have come to speak about that girl. 5. Who do you want to see? 6. I have never heard him complain.

  1.  Comment on the use of tenses. Translate these sentences into Ukrainian:

Elizabeth: Arnold's father arrived last night.

Teddie: Did he! I thought he was in Paris.

Arnold: So did we all. He said, he'd be there for the next month.

Anne: Have you seen him?

Arnold: Not He rang me up just now.

Elizabeth: Did you tell him Lady Catherine was coming?

Arnold: Of course not. I was surprised to know he was here. And then I thought we'd better talk it over first.

Elizabeth: Is he coming along here?

Arnold: Yes. He suggested it, and I couldn't think of any excuse to prevent him,

Teddie: Couldn't you put the other people off?

Arnold: They're coming by car. They can be here any minute. It's too late to do that,

Elizabeth: Besides, it would be beastly.

(After W. S. Maugham )

  1.  Define the forms and meaning of the underlined verbs:

1. "I've got your coat here". 2. "Are you having a holiday up here?" 3. I'll come when I've finished my drink, 4. She mistook his tone, though he was being ironic. 5. "Well, I've come to ask you something," said Roger. 6. It was not present on every run, but they never knew when it would be there. 7. Roger nodded to show that he understood. 8. Not going to the chapel? No. I've closed it up. I'm staying in the hotel tonight. 9. ... there was nothing he had forgotten. 10. "We have lovely things to eat. And we go to see the trains." (J. Wain).

1. – Кроківку тешеш – побавився бородою і ширше розтягнув відстовбурчені вуса. 2. – Восени при зорях вони дуже добре ловляться, коли в ятір кинути макухи. 3. Побачивши їх, вона вклонилася, посміхнулась і майнула до хати. 4. Звідти, вже одягнуті, виходять дядько Тимофій. 5. Тато відчиняють ворота і йдуть йому назустріч. 6. – Доброго ранку, дівчино. Ти хто будеш? 7. Ой, полегшало, ніби гора звалилася з пліч! (М. Стельмах) 8. І грає лагідно прояснена вода, немов замріяна про щастя молода: прокинеться, зітхне – і знову засипає. (А.Міцкевич) 9. Четверту вже годину йдуть дебати. (А. Косматенко).  

  1.  Use the appropriate form of the verb:

1. Have you ever been in the house where there___a couple courting? (is, are) 2. "There___money in my pocket," I said to the porter, (is, are) 3. I don't care what your family___. (says, say) 4. I know my hair ____beautiful, everybody says so. (is, are) 5. Linguistics___the most important part of our education. (is, are) 6. Forty dollars for a room each month___a common figure at that time. (was, were) 7. At Capracotta, he had told me, there___trout in the stream below the town. (was, were) 8. The police___to interview Fred about a robbery. (want, wants) 9. A pair of pants___in the drawer. (was, were) 10. The sugar-tongs___too wide for one of her hands, and she had to use both in using them, (was, were) 11. Can I borrow your scissors? Mine___sharp enough. (isn't, aren't) 12. The deer___ravaging the man's fields. (was, were) 13. The Himalayas___the eastern end of a great series of folded mountains. (is, are). 14. The majority of the people___made up their minds (has, have). 15. The cattle___gone, probably driven off. (was, were) 16. Tilts workers' wages___raised. (was, were).

  1.  Put the verb in brackets into the Present Indefinite, the Future Indefinite, the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect and the Future-in-the-Past:

It (be) Ashley's birthday and Melanie (give) him a surprise reception that night. Everyone (know) about the reception, except Ashley. Even his children (know). Everyone in the town who (be) nice (be invited). General Gordon and his family graciously (accept) the invitation. Alexander Stephens (say) he (be) present if his ever-uncertain health (permit). Scarlett never (see) Melanie so excited or so happy.

"You see, dear, Ashley (not have) a birthday party since we (come) here. And he (work) so hard and he (be) so tired. When he (get) home at night he (be) surprised when everybody (come) in!"

Melanie's house (blaze) lights from every room. It (be packed) with guests. They (overflow) on verandas and many (sit) on the benches in the dim lantern-hung yard.

(After M. Mitchell)

10. Translate into English:

1. Він завжди був дуже терплячий з дітьми. Один лише раз він розсердився на них. 2. Не встигли ми ввійти в кімнату, коли почався дощ, 3. Тільки коли вона була вже у потязі, вона згадала, що залишила парасольку вдома. 4. Ось іде мій автобус. До побачення. 5. Така цікава була вистава, що ми жалкували, коли вона скінчилася. 6. Я вже отримав відповіді на всі питання. - І я теж. 7. Я не погоджуюся з вашою пропозицією, і мої друзі теж. 8. Він не любив, коли сперечалися через дрібниці. - Я теж не люблю. 9. Я постійно забуваю його ім'я. 10. Я чекаю на вас вже цілу годину. Де ви були увесь цей час? 11. Я не бачила вас з тих пір, як ми були у театрі. Що ви робили весь цей час? 12. Я не була у бібліотеці вже цілий тиждень. Які нові книги ви отримали за цей час?

11. Translate the sentences in Ukrainian and comment upon the peculiarities of voice forms in the languages compared:

1. He is always listened to with great interest. 2. I have never been spoken to like that before. 3. His warning was not taken notice of. 4. His subject will be dealt with in the next chapter.

12. Change these active sentences into passive. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian and comment upon the peculiarities of voice forms in the languages compared:

1.People grow rice in India. 2. My aunt made this rug. 3. They are fixing my car today. 4.They speak French in Quebec. 5. Someone invented the wheel thousands of years ago. 6. Did Thomas Edison invent the telephone? 7. They are going to build a new hospital just outside of town. 8. How do people make candles? 9. Very few people watch that TV show. 10. Look! Someone is feeding the birds. 11. We shall deal with this problem in the second chapter. 12. The hotel takes no responsibility for the loss of personal property.

13. Find the sentences that don't make sense. Explain the reason:

1. Has set John Bailey a new high-jump record. 2. The passport examined the passport officer. 3. These biscuits don't like the dogs. 4. The shop assistant is wrapping the parcel. 5. Have seen the visitors the new building. 6. My father didn't wash the dishes. 7. The pipe is going to fix the plumber. 8. The dinner the cook burnt.

14. Analyze the form and meaning of the Oblique Moods. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. Oh, if I only knew what to do! 2. If it would only stop raining for a single day! 3. I would never allow anybody to hurt my child. 4. A few years ago I would have thought it wrong. 5. Come what may she was determined that they should never meet again. 6. It was urgent that he should look into the matter. 7. It was proposed that the conference open at 10 a. m. 8. I move that the meeting be adjourned. 9. Now, then, children. It is high time you were washed and dressed. 10. It was time they made up their quarrel. 11. He looked at me as if I had gone mad. 12. She moved about as if she were made of glass. 13. If it had not been for the storm, the ship would have arrived much earlier. 14. I should feel absolutely happy, but for your unpleasant remark. 15. If it had not been for that war, he would have graduated by now.

15. Respond to the statements by giving advice or making a recommendation with a suitable infinitive form.

  1.  I've got toothache. - You'd better go to the dentist.
    1.  John's terribly overweight. 3. You're always late for work! 4. Our train leaves in a few minutes. 5. Peter was involved in an accident with his car.  6. Someone's stolen my wallet! 7. The rain is coming through the roof. 8. Our tent was always getting blown down when we were on holiday. 9. Mary got terribly sunburnt yesterday. 10. We're spending our holidays in Spain next summer.

16. Transform each pair of statements into a sentence with the Oblique Moods. Translate them into Ukrainian:

l. lt is raining hard. We can't go to the country. 2. You didn't let me know beforehand. Therefore I didn't come. 3. He is very absent- minded. No wonder, he lost his papers. 4. Too bad, you didn't take the medicine yesterday. You would be better now. 5. No wonder he failed. He hadn't worked hard for the exam. 6. I was about to finish the translation, but you interrupted my work. 7. I have no dictionary. I shan't have translated the article by tomorrow. 8. The goal-keeper was hurt badly. The team lost the game.

17. Transform the sentences introduced by It is (was) time into those containing the Oblique Moods. Translate them into Ukrainian:

1. It's time for the children to go to bed. 2. It's time for them to make up their quarrel. 3. It's time for you to know this rule. 4. Isn't it time to have dinner? 5. Isn't it time for him to stop behaving like this?

18. Transform the sentences to use the unreal condition and translate them into Ukrainian:

1. What a pity, it is raining. 2. It's a pity you don't believe me. 3. I'm afraid I don't know what to do. 4. It's a pity you don't do anything to improve your pronunciation. 5. I'm sorry I can't help you. 6. I'm sorry I couldn't help you when you needed it. 7. I'm afraid he is very angry with me.

  1.  Fill in the correct form of the verbs in brackets:

1. I wish I (meet) that actor when he was in town. 2. He wishes he___(buy) that book last week - now he hasn't got enough money. 3. If only I___(be) older, I could have a driving license. 4. Tony wishes he___(go) to Paris with his brother, but he has to work. 5, If only the dog___(not eat) the tickets - now we can't go to the show. 3. If only I___(not make) that mistake yesterday. 7. I wish this box___(not be) so heavy - I can't lift it. 8. If the government___(give) more money to the factory, it ___(not close). 9. If the government___(build) flood barriers, we (not have) the floods last year. 10. If he___(know) how to swim, he___(not drown). 11. If we___(listen) to the weather forecast, we___(know) it was going to rain. 12. Marion proposed that we___(buy) a gift for Jim who would soon be leaving the firm. 13. The travel agent recommended that we___(avoid) driving abroad during the holidays. 14. I suggest that he___(not raise) this matter during the meeting.

  1.  Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:

Dear Mike,

I'm so desperate. I wish I (not move) to this place. It's not a bad place but it's so quiet. If only there___(be) more people of my age here, then I wouldn't feel so lonely. Even better, I wish my friends___(move) here from town. I thought I would enjoy the quiet life of the village but now I wish there___(be) some roads nearby so I could hear the traffic. I wish I___(afford) to move back to town but I don't have the money. Maybe it's the weather, I wish it___(stop) raining so at least I could go for long walks in the fields. Sometimes, when I'm really sad, I wish the village___(disappear) or my house___(collapse) so that I'd have to move. Maybe it will get better. If only I___(be) more patient. I wish I___(write) a more cheerful letter. It's made me even sadder. 1 look forward to hearing from you with some suggestions.

Yours, Sally.

  1.  Complete the sentences:

1. I would have enjoyed the party much more if... . 2. If... , I wouldn't think of changing my job. 3. If my father were to say such a thing to me, .... 4. If you had taken my advice, .... 5. If only you would read more carefully, .... 6. I wouldn't buy the picture even if... . 7. Would you have lent him the money if... ? 8. If... , we would have left without them. 9. If you explained the situation to your solicitor, lie .... 10. If you read the book a second time, you ....

  1.  Decide whether each sentence is grammatically possible. Give the reasons:

1. If you haven't received a letter yet, you haven't got the job. 2. If it isn't for David, we are missing the bus. 3. If it's raining, we go to the pub on the corner instead. 4. If you didn't lend us the money, we would have gone to the bank. 5. If you should happen to change your mind, drop me a line. 6. If it wasn't for the rain, we would have been home by now. 7. If you will drive so fast, no wonder the police keep stopping you. 8. If I knew you were coining, I would have met you at the airport. 9. But for you helped us, we would have taken much longer. 10. If Jack joins the team, I'm leaving.

  1.  Translate these sentences into English paying special attention to the forms of the Imperative Mood. Compare the ways of forming imperatives in English and Ukrainian:
    1.  Коли скінчиш, підійдеш до мене. 2. Спробуємо це зробити вчасно. 3. Давайте пообідаємо разом. 4. Нехай, кажуть. 5. "Постійно ти, навчу я тебе!" 6. "Ану, дайте-но йому!" 7. "Нехай буде все так, як ти сказав".
      1.  Make the following sentences containing can more polite or less categorical:

1. I don't believe you've forgotten our song. You can't have done it. 2. "But the door is locked". "I expect we can open it". 3. In the end he insisted on walking in the rain. "He can't be so silly". 4. And I've got a bit of money. We can get ourselves a nice flat. 5. I'm hungry. Can I have my tea?

  1.  Explain the meaning of can in the following sentences and translate into Ukrainian:

1. Сап I smoke, Mr Hawkings? 2. 1 ate the next course grimly to the end; she couldn't have been enjoying her meal much either 3. What can have happened to change him so much? 4. Really he had no idea that she could use water-colour as well as that. 5. "There's no such train". "We came by it", "You can't have". 6. But the next day she was not well. She could not leave her cabin. 7. My son is not in town; but he will be before long. Can I give him any message? 8. We can discuss it now, clause by clause. 9. Can there have been any misunderstanding in our first encounter? 10. The teacher said they all could go home.

  1.  Translate into English using can:

1. Я не міг відповісти на друге запитання. 2. Я зможу зробити це  завтра. 3. Ми не зможемо купити квитки на цей матч. 4. Ми не змогли купити квитки на цей матч. 5. Не може бути, щоб він провалився на екзамені. 6. Невже вона сказала це? 7. Невже ти працюєш тут з сьомої години ранку? 8. Не може бути, щоб вона чекала нас зараз. Уже темніє. 9. Не може бути, щоб Джон уже закінчив всю роботу. 10. Такої книжки не може бути у моїй приватній бібліотеці. 11. Не може бути, що він така жорстока людина. 12. Він ніяк не може бути там зараз.

27. Explain the meanings of must in the following sentences. Give the Ukrainian translation:

1. Must you work hard? 2. You mustn't tell anybody about it. 3. You must change your shoes. I won't have you in here with muddy, feet. 4. The children must brush their own shoes 5. I always have a warm corner for Roberta. I must try and find her before I go abroad. 6. You must give it back to me before you go. 7. She mustn't go home alone.

28. Complete the following sentences using the modal verb must:

1. He turned pale on hearing the news, it ... .2. I feel a perfect wreck ... .3. Whatever happens .... 4. I never slept a wink ... .5. There is light in her window ... . 6. Whatever you do ... .7. I asked Nick to stay for lunch but he declined. 8. It's such a pity ... . 9. Come on, Pete. We .... 10. She is so excited .... 11. Don't pay any attention to what he says ... . 12. It is not Arnold's fault that you ....

29. Fill in the blanks using can, may or must in the required form:

1. The old man cupped his ear in his palm. "I think I ... getting deaf. I can't hear you. 2. Mr Fox ... not come. He sent me to represent him. 3. I went straight from the station to the club to play billiards. It ... have been after eleven when I reached the flat. 4. Oh, you ... drink your coffee steaming!... you eat eggs with the shells on, too? 5. She was beginning to want to ask him in but she knew that she ... not do it yet. 6. It's a most interesting story. He ... not possibly have invented it. You ... have told him something. 7. The apples are very good. You ... eat them all. 8. My wife ... leave the hospital in a week's time. 9. My wife ... have left the hospital a few days ago. 10. I'm trying to think where he ... be going. 11. She looked unusually pale and gloomy. 1 wondered what ... have upset her.

30. State whether be is a modal verb, a notional verb, a link verb or an auxiliary verb:

1. His plan was to drive straight up to the house. 2. She said that in other was awake and was delighted to hear that Martha had come lo see her. 3. Bosinney was waiting for him at the door, and on his rugged, good-looking face was a queer, yearning, yet happy look. 4. "When are you to be married?" asked Miss Ley, after a pause. 5. My advice, Shirl, is to stay away from the law. 6. No one else is to be admitted, under any circumstances.

31. Translate the following sentences into English using have to or be to:

1. Вона була змушена випити чай без цукру. 2. Варт мав зустрітися з своїм братом за ленчем наступного дня. 3. Я знав, що Пат мала прийти до клубу. 4. Я був дещо здивований, коли побачив так багато людей у залі, де я мав виступати. 5. Мені немає необхідності бути там раніше ніж о третій годині. 6. Руді запросили на обід до Мері. Після обіду вони мали піти в театр. 7. Один з гостей підсів біля мене. Ніхто не повинен був казати мені, хто він. 8. Учора вени бомбили нас цілий день, і ми були змушені залишатися в окопах.

32. Translate the following sentences with the emotional should. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. "I thought you'd be pleased". "Why should I be pleased?" 2. Why shouldn't he have a laugh at it, if that's how he feels? 3. There is no reason why you should trouble yourself with. 4. "You didn't tell the coroner at the inquest?" - "No, why should I have done?" 5. He could see no reason why she should have lied. 6. Why should he be worried like this? It was very likely all nonsense; women were funny things. 7, You must put away your diary, Cecily, I really don't see why you should keep a diary at all.

33. State whether should is an auxiliary verb or a modal verb:

1. I was really hurt that he should speak to me like that. Rodric and I never quarreled. 2. When I had settled her down, I went to bed myself. I didn't think I should sleep, but I slept like a dog. 3. "How about lunch? 1 get hungry right on time these days". — "Well — that's a bit of a problem". I knew I should have brought sandwiches. 4. I felt I should call and let you know that she was able to get some sleep and is now feeling a good deal better.

34. Translate the following sentences into English using the emotional should:

1. Мені дуже шкода, що ти такої поганої думки про мене. 2. "Як його звуть?" "А навіщо я буду про це казати тобі?!" 3. Дивно, що він нічого не сказав про це. 4. Це просто чудово, що вона все-таки сама здогадалась про все! 5. Я подумав, що це абсурд, коли він таким тоном розмовляв зі мною в той момент. 6. Не було ніякої причини, чому б їм не бути там.7. Не знаю, чому це тобі так страшенно хочеться побачити Петра саме в цю хвилину.

35. Translate the following sentences into English using shouldn't, or needn't followed by a perfect infinitive:

1. Тобі не треба було привозити свого приятеля сьогодні, бо й погано почуваюся. 2. Тобі не треба було одружуватися так рано. 3. Тобі не слід було поступатися перед її примхами. 4. Він даремно приїхав у Лондон. Олени тут немає. 5. Петро даремно написав їй про це. Тепер вона буде тривожитись і плакати.

36. Translate into English using should, ought to, to have to, to be to wherever possible:

1. Тепер я засмутив її. Мені не слід було казати про це. 2. Ну що ж, ти маєш рацію. Мені не треба було цього робити. 3. Як на твою думку: що мені тепер робити? 4. Оксана - твоя сестра. Мені слід було здогадатись про це раніш. Ви ж так схожі одна на одну. 5. Я сказав, що їм не слід було приходити до вас тоді. 6. Не слід було ставити такі запитання, Оксано. 7. Тобі треба було покласти книжку в портфель, тоді б ти не загубив її. Тепер тобі прийдеться купувати таку ж знову.

37. Change the following sentences using the polite forms "Would you mind" or "Will you please":

1. Give me that box of matches. 2. Don't talk while I'm watching TV. 3. Take these letters to the post-office. 4. Turn the TV off. 5. Don't smoke in the dining-room.

38. Translate the following using shall, will, should or would:

1. Ви цього не зробите! Пам'ятайте про це! 2. Магазин, мабуть, ще відчинений. Якщо ви поспішите, ви ще встигнете купити хліба. 3. Було зайве доводити йому, що він неправий: він ніколи не погоджувався. Він дуже впертий. Він сказав, що поїде наступного дня, проте ми і слухати не хотіли про це. 4. І чому не треба було втручатись у цю справу? 5. Мабуть, зараз досить пізно, бо вже сутеніє. 6. Вам доведеться складати цей іспит ще раз. Вам треба звернути більше уваги на синтаксис. 7. Вам слід було попередити нас, що ви прийдете. Ми б пішли зустрічати вас.

39. Complete the following sentences:

1. Ann must be sleeping .... 2. I told her I wouldn't have any more to do with her ... . 3. I think we ought to be starting .... 4. He ought to have telephoned her ... .5. I shall not spare myself ... .6. She could just sit in the room and wait ... . 7. You must have been alarmed ... . 8. It can't be helped .... 9. Nobody knows what I have to put up with ... . 10. Everything you do is wrong, and everything you haven't done you ought to have done ....

40. Paraphrase the sentences using the modal verbs. Make all the necessary changes:

1. She was pleased to be able to tell you that her son was at Cambridge. 2. I'm sure you will find her quite satisfactory. 3. We'll leave things as they are for the present. It's highly probable Mr. Achroyd paid that money away himself. 4. It is likely enough that each branch of the Forsyte family made that remark as: they drove away from old Jolyon's "at home". 5. Mrs Jennings and Mrs Palmer joined their entreaties, all seemed equally anxious to avoid a family party; and the young ladies were obliged to yield. 6. He instructed the government operator, "Get Mr Warrender, He'll probably be at home". 7. "If I tell Harvey that", Howden said, "he'll probably quote Plato at me". 8. Alroy Rear was a bachelor and now at fifty was likely to remain one. 9. Jenny was obliged to go a little before six, at which hour the Golden Grown opened its doors to thirsty Christians. 10. It is quite possible that he has refused to help them. 1.1. In all likelihood the criminal will be sentenced to long term imprisonment.

41. Combine the sentences so as to use the infinitive:

1. She is still young. She can't travel to London alone. 2. John doesn't earn much. He can't buy it. 3. He was very late. He didn't catch the 12:30 train. 4. I can see you aren't clever. You can't do these calculations in your head. 5. You don't know the poem well. You can't recite it in front of the class tomorrow. 6. He was very far. He couldn't see what they were doing. 7. The water in the lake is very cold. I can't bathe. 8. You are very quick. You can easily catch up with the group.

42. Transform each pair of sentences into the one with a gerund or a gerundial construction:

1. They are arguing over trifles. It's a waste of time. 2. My watch doesn't keep good time. It needs to be repaired. 3. I remember the man. I met him in London. 4. She is always gossiping. I think she is fond of it. 5. Don't interrupt me. I hate it. 6. I couldn't answer earlier. Please, forgive me. 7. You've helped .me a lot. I'm so grateful to you. 8. My mother is sure to interfere in my affairs. I'm against it. 9. You smoke too much. Give up this habit. 10. I may come in late tonight. Do you mind it? 11. I think you must see the film. It is good.

43. Characterize your group-mates using the following structures:

1. He can't afford... 2. He was heard... 3. She appeared... 4. I believe him... 5. She did not stop... 6. He is going ... 7. She doesn't mind... 8. He tried to remember... 9. She objected to... 10. He got up and looked quite prepared ... 11. I was surprised when I saw her... 12. Obviously he seems... 13. I watched her... 14. He was heard...

44. Complete the following using the gerund or the infinitive:

l.He has made remarkable progress, we hope him... 2. You don't try... . 3. I am going... . 4. He can't afford... . 5. I am sure that you and he will be able... . 6. I remember he used... . 7. Obviously the only way is... .

45. Compare the forms and functions of the participles and the participial constructions in the following sentences. Translate these sentences into Ukrainian:

l. The patient operated on is still unconscious. 2. The patient operated on yesterday is feeling better now. 3. The patient now being operated on has a weak heart. 4. The students watched their professor operating on the man. 5. They watched the patient being operated on. 6. You must have your husband operated on. 7. The woman was waiting in the reception-room, her husband being operated on upstairs. 8. The patient operated on, the surgeon could rest a little.

46. Transform each pair of sentences into the one with a complex object.

1. The announcer called the flight. I've heard it. 2. The plane took off. We all have seen it. 3. The children should go on with the game. Please let them. 4. He has taken your dictionary. Did you allow him? 5. Pete didn't know how to fix the TV set. I helped him. 6. Ann can't be cruel with children. I've never known her that way. 7. He is the author of that bestseller. Everybody knows it. 8. You muat search the prisoner. It's the commander's order. 9. We were waiting for the delegation. If was due to arrive. 10. The speaker called on all those present to support the campaign. You've heard it, haven't you?

47. Transform these sentences using a complex subject:

1. We heard the commander give the instruction. 2. People saw the rocket fly up. 3. The colonel ordered the lieutenant to question the prisoner. 4. The mother allows her children to play in the open. 5. The instructor made him do the work all over again. 6. They say this medicine із very effective. 7. We believe him to be a great authority on the subject. 8. They expected the delegation to arrive the next day.

48. Recast the following sentences so as to use predicative constructions with the gerund. Use prepositions where required:

1. Presently I became aware that someone was moving softly about this room. 2. I was about to suggest that you should lunch with me. 3. For my part I had never before suspected that Kate had a deep vein of superstition in her nature. 4. I cut short his lamentations, by suggesting that we should start for the camp at once. 5. I like you so much because you are such a good cook. 6. I boasted that my father was different; he would understand that 1 was an artist. 7, She took a peculiar delight in the fact that he was Peter's son.

49. Translate into English:

1. Минулого літа ми жили у селі, розташованому на березі Дніпра, в маленькому будиночку з великим садком навколо. 2. Дім, в якому ми жили влітку, був оточений великим садом. 3. Учора я розмовляв з чоловіком, який кілька років прожив у Китаї. 4. Я не пам'ятаю цифри, які він згадав у своїй доповіді. 5. У своїй доповіді він згадав цифри, які ясно ілюструють стан нашої промисловості. 6. Людина, яка хоче оволодіти іноземною мовою, повинна працювати старанно і систематично. 7. Я тільки що прочитав оповідання, яке мені дуже сподобалось. 8. Оповідання, яке я тільки що прочитала, мені дуже сподобалось. 9. Корабель, спеціально збудований для того, щоб прокладати шлях крізь кригу, називається криголамом.

50. State the forms and functions of the absolute participial constructions and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. Weather permitting, we shall sail off tomorrow morning. 2. The outside temperature being ten degrees below zero, it was unusually cold in the schoolroom. 3. The mission carried out, they were granted a three day leave. 4. The matter being so urgent, they had to reconsider the original plan. 5. Time dragged on, each day dull and cheerless.

51. Recast the following sentences so as to use the nominative absolute participial construction.

1. When a fortnight of his notice to Mrs. Grant had expired Mike really began to worry. 2. The rain showed no sign of stopping, and at length with umbrellas and waterproofs they set out. 3. When the doorbell rang, Lesley rose and left the room. 4. At last his preparations were complete — the flowers, the food, the wine upon the ice; his eyes surveyed the scene with shining intensity. 5. Now that the examination was so close at hand, a queer calmness had settled upon him.

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Typological features of the verb. Category of tense in English and Ukrainian. Category of aspect, of person. Number, Category of voice. Category of mood in English and Ukrainian. Syntactic functions. Modal verbs. Verbals in English and Ukrainian.

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