The subject of Theoretical Grammar
Language consists of three main parts: phonological, lexical and grammatical system.
The phonological system determines the material (phonetical) appearance of its significant units.
The lexical system is the whole set of naming means of language, i.e. words and word-groups.
The grammatical system is the whole set of regularities determining the combination of naming means in the formation of utterances.
Traditionally grammar is determined as the system of rules of changing of the words and the rules and regulations of their combining in sentence. Thats why its divided into two parts: morphology (rules of words changing) and syntax (rules of words combining in sentences).
Grammar has a practical and theoretical purpose.
A practical description is aimed at providing the student with a manual of using the language in a proper way without making mistakes in oral and written speech.
The aim of theoretical grammar of a language is to present a theoretical description of its grammatical system, i.e. to scientifically analyze and define its grammatical categories and study the mechanisms of grammatical formation of the utterances out of word and the process of speech making.
The nature of grammar is better understood through the plane of content and plane of expression.
The plain of content comprises the purely semantic elements contained in language, while the plane of expression comprises the formal (material) units of language taken by themselves, apart from the meanings rendered by them.
Polysemy and homonymy: two or more units of the plane of content correspond to one unit of the plane of expression. (придумать пример)
- The human species (i.e., man vs. animal)
- Males of the human species (i.e., man vs. woman)
- Adult males of the human species (i.e., man vs. boy)
This example shows the specific polysemy where the same word is used at different levels of a taxonomy. Example 1 contains 2, and 2 contains 3.
a small burrowing mammal
consequently, there are several different entities called moles (see the Mole disambiguation page). Although these refer to different things, their names derive from 1. :e.g. A Mole burrows for information hoping to go undetected.
- a financial institution
- the building where a financial institution offers services
a synonym for 'rely upon' (e.g. "I'm your friend, you can bank on me"). It is different, but related, as it derives from the theme of security initiated by 1
However: a river bank is a homonym to 1 and 2, as they do not share etymologies. It is a completely different meaning. River bed, though, is polysemous with the beds on which people sleep.
a bound collection of pages
a text reproduced and distributed (thus, someone who has read the same text on a computer has read the same book as someone who had the actual paper volume)
to make an action or event a matter of record (e.g. "Unable to book a hotel room, a man sneaked into a nearby private residence where police arrested him and later booked him for unlawful entry.")
The verb milk (e.g. "he's milking it for all he can get") derives from the process of obtaining milk.
- a piece of a tree
- a geographical area with many trees
- a bird
- a type of construction equipment
- to strain out one's neck
Synonymy: two or more units of the plane of expression correspond to one unit of the plane of content. (придумать пример)
Taking into consideration the discrimination between the two planes, we may say that the purpose of grammar as a linguistic discipline is to disclose and formulate the regularities of the correspondence between the plane of content and the plane of expression in the formation of utterances.