Syntactic relations between words (components) of a word group
The main syntactic relations between components of a phrase are coordination, subordination, interdependence and cummulation.
In coordination (сочинение )the constituents of a phrase are independent of each other and we can change their places, e.g. Mary and John (John and Mary), boys and girls (girls and boys).
In subordination (подчинение) we have the head and the adjunct, and the adjunct is subordinated to the head. Such syntactic relations are found in all headed phrases, e.g. beautiful girl, country doctor.
Interdependence is relations between subject and predicate. The constituents are interdependent; the subject depends on a predicate and visa versa, e.g. he smiles, I know.
The forth main type of syntactic relations in a phrase is cummulation, which can be found in non-headed dependent phrases, e.g. my old (friend), his own (dog). The difference between cummulation and coordination is that in coordination you can change the places of the constituents but in cummulation you can not do that.
To additional types of syntactic relations in a phrase refer agreement, government, and enclosure.
By agreement согласование we mean a method of expressing a syntactical relationship, which consists in making the subordinate word take a form similar to that of the word to which it is subordinate. In Modern English this can refer only to the category of number: a subordinate word agrees in number with its head word. This is practically found in two words only this and that, which agree in number with their headword.
The verb doesnt always follow the noun in the category of number. The United Nations is an international organization, or My family are early risers. Such sentences prove that these is no agreement of the verb with the noun, the verb shows whether the subject of the action is to be thought of as singular or plural, no matter what the category of number in the noun may be.
By government we understand the use of a certain form of the subordinate ( придаточный) word required by its head word, but not coinciding with the form of the head word itself.
The role of government in Modern English is almost insignificant. We dont find in English any verbs, or nouns, or adjectives, requiring the subordinate noun to be in one case rather than in another.
The only thing that may be termed government in Modern English is the use of the objective case of personal pronouns and of the pronoun who when they are subordinate to a verb or follow a preposition (invite him, saw him).
There is another means of expressing syntactical connection which plays a significant part in Modern English. It may be called “enclosure” (примыкание). Some element of a phrase is enclosed between two parts of another elements. The most widely known case of “enclosure” is the putting of a word between an article and